Recalled Dietary Supplements Still Have Banned Ingredients

Newswise — About two-thirds of FDA recalled dietary supplements analyzed still contained banned drugs at least 6 months after being recalled, according to a study in the October 22/29 issue of JAMA.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiates class I drug recalls when products have the reasonable possibility of causing serious adverse health consequences or death. Recently, the FDA has used class I drug recalls in an effort to remove dietary supplements adulterated with pharmaceutical ingredients from U.S. markets. Prior research has found that even after FDA recalls, dietary supplements remain available on store shelves. However, it has not been known if the supplements on sale after FDA recalls are free of the adulterants, according to background information in the article.

Pieter A. Cohen, M.D., of Harvard Medical School, Boston, and colleagues conducted a study to determine if banned drugs were still present in dietary supplements purchased at least six months after a recall. The FDA recalled 274 dietary supplements between January 2009 and December 2012. Twenty-seven of the 274 recalled supplements (9.9 percent) met inclusion criteria for the study and were analyzed using the same methods at the FDA’s laboratories (e.g., gas chromatography/mass spectrometry). Supplements were purchased an average of 34.3 months (range 8-52 months) after the FDA recall. Seventy-four percent of supplements (20/27) were produced by U.S. manufacturers.

The researchers found that one or more pharmaceutical adulterant was identified in 66.7 percent of recalled supplements still available for purchase (18/27). Supplements remained adulterated in 85 percent (11/13) of those for sports enhancement, 67 percent (6/9) for weight loss, and 20 percent (1/5) for sexual enhancement. Of the subset of supplements produced by U.S. manufacturers, 65 percent (13/20) remained adulterated with banned ingredients.

Sixty-three percent of analyzed supplements contained the same adulterant identified by the FDA. Six (22.2 percent) supplements contained 1 or more additional banned ingredients not identified by the FDA. Some supplements contained both the previously identified adulterant as well as additional pharmaceutical ingredients.

Banned substances identified in recalled supplements included sibutramine, sibutramine analogs, sildenafil, fluoxetine, phenolphthalein, aromatase inhibitor, and various anabolic steroids.

“To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine if adulterants remain in supplements sold after FDA recalls,” the authors write.

“Action by the FDA has not been completely effective in eliminating all potentially dangerous adulterated supplements from the U.S. marketplace. More aggressive enforcement of the law, changes to the law to increase the FDA’s enforcement powers, or both will be required if sales of these products are to be prevented in the future.”

Posted in Nutrition: Supplements | Leave a comment

Hospital alarm fatigue is real. And dangerous.

Newswise — Following the study of a hospital that logged more than 2.5 million patient monitoring alarms in just one month, researchers at UC San Francisco have, for the first time, comprehensively defined the detailed causes as well as potential solutions for the widespread issue of alarm fatigue in hospitals.

Their study is in the Oct. 22 issue of PLOS ONE and available online.

The issue of alarm fatigue has become so significant that The Joint Commission, a national organization that accredits hospitals, named it a National Patient Safety Goal. This goal requires hospitals to establish alarm safety as a priority, identify the most important alarms and establish policies to manage alarms by January 2016.

“There have been news stories about patient deaths due to hospital staff silencing cardiac monitor alarms and alerts from federal agencies warning about alarm fatigue,” said senior author Barbara Drew, PhD, RN, David Mortara Distinguished Professor in Physiological Nursing in the School of Nursing at UCSF. “However, there have been little data published on the topic to inform clinicians about what to do about the problem. Our study is the first to shed light on cardiac monitor alarm frequency, accuracy, false alarm causes and strategies to solve this important clinical problem.”

Alarm fatigue occurs when clinicians become desensitized to the constant noise of alarms and ignore them or turn them off. Among the numerous detrimental results are anxiety in hospital staff and patients, sleep deprivation among hospitalized patients, and missed life-threatening heart rhythm events.

In the PLOS ONE observational study, the largest of its kind to date, Drew and her research team stored monitor data on 461 adults treated in five intensive care units (ICU) at UCSF Medical Center over a 31-day period. The data came from electrocardiogram (ECG) leads (electric cables attaching the electrodes to the recorder); pressure, blood oxygen saturation and respiration waveforms; and user settings and alarms, among other technology.

During that time period, a staggering 2,558,760 unique alarms were recorded, many caused by a complex interplay of inappropriate user settings, patients’ conditions and computer algorithm deficiencies. This includes a subset of 1,154,201 arrhythmia alarms, of which 88.8 percent were determined to be false positives caused by the algorithm deficiencies.

Based on these findings and earlier studies, the researchers suggest that medical devices focus on using all available ECG leads to identify the non-disruptive leads and the leads with adequate QRS waveform amplitude. These devices also should provide prompts to aid in more appropriate tailoring of alarm settings to individual patients. And, atrial fibrillation alarms should be limited to new onset and termination of the arrhythmia, with delays for ST-segment and other parameter alarms able to be configured.

“Nurses and patients are barraged by a staggering number of monitor alarms that could be resolved by improved computer algorithms,” Drew said. “Our results shed light on the high prevalence of alarms that are mostly false and provide insights into the causes of so many false alarms, along with suggestions for device improvement.”

Drew and her colleagues anticipate their study will be cited by current working groups attempting to solve alarm fatigue, led by The Joint Commission, the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), the International Society for Computerized Electrocardiology (ISCE), the Emergency Care Research Institute (ERCI), the American Heart Association, and the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Radiological Devices & Health.

“Because computer devices are more reliable than humans, an opportunity exists to improve physiologic monitoring and reduce alarm fatigue,” the authors write.

Other contributors to the PLOS ONE study from the UCSF School of Nursing were Patricia Harris, PhD, RN, assistant professor; Xiao Hu, PhD, associate professor; Tina Mammone, PhD, RN, administrative nurse; Daniel Schindler, MS, RN, predoctoral scholar; Rebeca Salas-Boni, PhD, postdoctoral scholar; Quan Ding, PhD, postdoctoral scholar; Yong Bai, PhD(c), predoctoral scholar; and Adelita Tinoco, MS, RN, predoctoral scholar. Jessica K. Zègre-Hemsey, PhD, RN, of the University of North Carolina School of Nursing, also contributed.

Posted in Health Care: Hospitals, Health Care: Medical Errors | Leave a comment

Trans fat intake is down but not by enough: AHA

Good news, bad news: The amount of trans fats we eat has declined over the last 30 years, but we’re still consuming more than recommended.

In a study reported in the Journal of the American Heart Association, researchers reviewed results from a series of six surveys as part of the Minnesota Heart Survey in 1980-2009.

More than 12,000 adults 25-74 years old in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area revealed that:

  • Trans fat intake dropped by about one-third in men (32 percent) and women (35 percent).
  • Average intake of the omega-3 fatty acids (DHA and EPA) was steady, but current intake is still very low.
  • Intake of saturated fats dropped, but still account for about 11.4 percent of daily calories for men and women. The American Heart Association recommends limiting saturated fat to 5-6 percent of total calories.

“There’s a downward trend in trans and saturated fat intake levels, but it’s clear that we still have room for improvement,” said Mary Ann Honors, Ph.D., lead study author and an epidemiology researcher at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health in Minneapolis.

Saturated fats and trans fats can increase the risk of heart disease because they can raise bad cholesterol levels and lower good cholesterol levels. Saturated fats are found in products derived from animals, such as meat and full-fat dairy products, as well as some tropical oils such as coconut or palm oil. Trans fats are mainly found in processed, fried and commercially baked foods such as pastries, pizza, pies, cookies and crackers.

The study found that men consumed about 1.9 percent of their daily calories from trans fats and women about 1.7 percent. The American Heart Association recommends limiting trans fats to no more than 1 percent of total calories consumed.

“To make your diet more in line with the recommendations, use the nutritional panel on food labels to choose foods with little or no trans fats,” Honors said.

Researchers also analyzed the participants’ intake of omega-3 fatty acids, which has not changed significantly in the last thirty years. Omega-3 fatty acids may improve cardiovascular disease risk by lowering risk of abnormal heartbeat, cutting triglyceride levels and improving blood pressure.

The American Heart Association recommends that people without documented coronary heart disease (CHD) eat a variety of fish at least twice a week, with an emphasis on fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel and herring, which are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. The recommendations differ slightly for patients with documented CHD or those who may need to lower their triyglycerides.

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Co-authors are Lisa Harnack, Dr.P.H., R.D.; Xia Zhou, M.S.; and Lyn Steffen, Ph.D. Author disclosures are on the manuscript.

The National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute funded the study. Source

Posted in Nutrition: Fat, Obesity | Leave a comment

Extra-depth shoes may help alleviate foot pain for older people

(Reuters Health) – For adults over age 65 with disabling foot pain, being fitted for off-the-shelf extra-depth footwear reduced pain and improved function, according to a new study.

This type of footwear is often marketed to people with diabetic foot ailments, for whom Medicare – the U.S. government health insurance program for people over 65 – will cover most of the cost of the shoes.

The structure and function of the foot changes significantly with age regardless of diabetes status, said lead author Hylton B. Menz of the Lower Extremity and Gait Studies Program in the School of Allied Health at La Trobe University in Melbourne, Australia.

“With advancing age, there is a general tendency for the foot to exhibit increased soft tissue stiffness, decreased range of motion, decreased strength, and a more pronated posture, and to function in a more pronated position with reduced range of motion and less efficient propulsion when walking,” Menz told Reuters Health by email.

A pronated foot has more weight on the inside edge of the foot, rather than evenly distributed, which can give the appearance of the ankles bending slightly toward each other.

In addition, many older people wear ill-fitting shoes that don’t accommodate the changed shape of their feet, he said. More

 

Posted in Diabetes, Diabetes: Foot Ulcers, Podiatry | Leave a comment

Prostate cancer and vitamin D: a missing link is found

A University of Colorado Cancer Center study recently published in the journal Prostate offers compelling evidence that inflammation may be the link between Vitamin D and prostate cancer. Specifically, the study shows that the gene GDF-15, known to be upregulated by Vitamin D, is notably absent in samples of human prostate cancer driven by inflammation.

“When you take Vitamin D and put it on prostate cancer cells, it inhibits their growth. But it hasn’t been proven as an anti-cancer agent. We wanted to understand what genes Vitamin D is turning on or off in prostate cancer to offer new targets,” says James R. Lambert, PhD, investigator at the CU Cancer Center and associate research professor in the CU School of Medicine Department of Pathology.

Since demonstrating that Vitamin D upregulates the expression of GDF-15, Lambert and colleagues, including Scott Lucia, MD, wondered if this gene might be a mechanism through which Vitamin D works in prostate cancer. Initially it seemed as if the answer was no.

“We thought there might be high levels of GDF-15 in normal tissue and low levels in prostate cancer, but we found that in a large cohort of human prostate tissue samples, expression of GDF-15 did not track with either normal or cancerous prostate tissue,” Lambert says.

But then the team noticed an interesting pattern: GDF-15 was uniformly low in samples of prostate tissue that contained inflammation.

“Inflammation is thought to drive many cancers including prostate, gastric and colon. Therefore, GDF-15 may be a good thing in keeping prostate tissue healthy – it suppresses inflammation, which is a bad actor potentially driving prostate cancer,” Lambert says.

The study used a sophisticated computer algorithm to analyze immunohistochemical (IHC) data, a task that in previous studies had been done somewhat subjectively by pathologists. With this new technique, Lambert, Lucia and colleagues were able to quantify the expression of the GDF-15 protein and inflammatory cells by IHC staining on slides taken from these human prostate samples.

Additionally encouraging is that the gene GDF-15 was shown to suppress inflammation by inhibiting another target, NFkB. This target, NFkB, has been the focus of many previous studies in which it has been shown to promote inflammation and contribute to tumor formation and growth; however, researchers have previously been unable to drug NFkB to decrease its tumor-promoting behavior.

“There’s been a lot of work on inhibiting NFkB,” says Lambert. “Now from this starting point of Vitamin D in prostate cancer, we’ve come a long way toward understanding how we might use GDF-15 to target NFkB, which may have implications in cancer types far beyond prostate.” Source

Posted in Cancer: Prostate, Inflammation, Nutrition: Vitamin D | Leave a comment

3 Steps to Becoming Stress-Proof: Much of What You’re Now Doing is Wrong.

Most of the things you instinctively do to relieve stress don’t work.

The APA’s national survey on stress found that the most commonly used strategies were also rated as highly ineffective by the same people who reported using them.

For example, only 16 percent of people who eat to reduce stress report that it actually helps them.

Another study found that women are most likely to eat chocolate when they are feeling anxious or depressed, but the only reliable change in mood they experience from their drug of choice is an increase in guilt.

So what does work?

According to the American Psychological Association, the most effective stress-relief strategies are exercising or playing sports, praying or attending a religious service, reading, listening to music, spending time with friends or family, getting a massage, going outside for a walk, meditating or doing yoga, and spending time with a creative hobby.

(The least effective strategies are gambling, shopping, smoking, drinking, eating, playing video games, surfing the Internet, and watching TV or movies for more than two hours.)

2) It’s All About A Feeling Of Control

As is often said, stress isn’t about what happens to you, it’s how you react to it. This is true. More

Posted in Human Behavior: Stress, Meditation, Mindfulness, Workaholism | Leave a comment

Does a Loved One Need a Geriatric Assessment?

Newswise — BUFFALO, N.Y. – By a tremendous margin – over 95 percent – older Americans choose to live at home or with relatives. Families making that choice should consider seeking the assistance of a geriatric specialist, especially when they see changes in their loved one’s behavior, says Bruce R. Troen, MD, chief of the division of geriatrics and palliative medicine in the Department of Medicine at the University at Buffalo.

“Early in life, as toddlers and youngsters, we accumulate skills, which we call activities of daily living (IADLs), such as dressing, eating and personal hygiene,” says Troen. “Unfortunately – and not necessarily as part of normal aging – some of us start losing those capabilities at the other end of our lives. When that happens, it’s time for a comprehensive geriatric assessment.”

Families should take note, he says, of any decline in a loved one’s ability to accomplish basic activities of daily living. This includes Dressing, Eating, Ambulating, Toileting and Hygiene (the acronym DEATH), and instrumental activities of daily living or community actions – Shopping, Housework, Accounting, Food preparation and Transportation (the acronym SHAFT).

“If there is a decline in any one of these, I would recommend a comprehensive geriatric assessment,” says Troen. “Such assessments can help distinguish reversible causes of cognitive decline from irreversible ones.”

Troen says that some cognitive declines, such as confusion and memory loss, may be attributable to acute illnesses or conditions that are reversible if caught early enough. They include urinary tract infections, vitamin B12 deficiency, pneumonia or hypothyroidism, all of which are common in the elderly, he says. Cognitive symptoms also can be caused by heart attacks, stroke and some infectious diseases.

The multidisciplinary perspective that geriatricians provide is crucial, Troen adds.
“Elders may have multiple medical problems and will benefit from this comprehensive approach,” he says. “For example, frailty is a core element of geriatric practice. We need to diagnose what is causing the frailty, just as we would diagnose what is causing confusion or delirium.

“Geriatric symptoms don’t fit neatly into distinct categories; that’s why we call them a syndrome. They need to be addressed by multidisciplinary approaches,” says Troen.
Comprehensive assessments also can help primary care providers provide optimal care for elderly patients.

“A lot of what we are talking about here is how to maintain and preserve the healthspan – not the lifespan – of an individual, meaning the period of time where they have a quality of life and level of functioning that is as high as possible,” he says.

When treating geriatric patients, says Troen, primary care providers should consider four domains: medical, psychological, functional and social domains. “All four need to be considered to provide a geriatric assessment,” he says. “Supportive services, such as assistance with food preparation, maintaining a checkbook or transportation may need to be provided by an agency or maybe they can be provided through a family member. It depends on the individual’s set of needs.

Posted in Aging, Elder Care, Elder Care: Falls | Leave a comment

National Forgiveness Day on Oct. 25: Let Bygones Be Bygones for Your Emotional Health

Newswise — Forgiving — and being forgiven — are good for your emotional health, research has shown, and National Forgiveness Day on Oct. 25 may be the time to let bygones be bygones and also to make amends.

Research by Baylor University psychologists shows that making amends over a wrong gives you emotional permission to forgive yourself, according to two studies that have been published in The Journal of Positive Psychology. That’s important, researchers said, because previous studies show that the inability to self-forgive can be a factor in depression, anxiety and a weakened immune system.

“One barrier people face in forgiving themselves is that they feel they deserve to feel bad. Our study found that making amends gives us permission to let go,” said Thomas Carpenter, a researcher in Baylor’s College of Arts & Sciences.

In one study of self-forgiveness, 269 participants recalled diverse “real-world” wrongs they had done, ranging from romantic betrayals to physical injury to gossip to rejection. They were asked how much they have forgiven themselves, how much they had made such overtures as apology, asking forgiveness and restitution; and how much they felt it was OK to self-forgive. The study found that they more they had tried to make things right, the more it was permissible to let go.

The study also examined hypothetical wrongs to better test people uniformly. Participants were asked about failing to admit to an action that caused a friend to get fired. The guiltier a person felt and the more serious the wrong, the less likely he or she was to self-forgive. Making amends appeared to help by reducing those feelings, the researchers found.

Which raises the question: Do actions speak louder than words when it comes to forgiveness?

People are more likely to show forgiving behavior if they receive restitution, but they are more prone to report they have forgiven if they get an apology, according to another Baylor study on forgiving behavior that was published in The Journal of Positive Psychology. The study underscores the importance of both restitution and apology, researchers said.

Posted in Human Behavior: Forgiveness | Leave a comment

Your athleticism can be measured with new software system

What can you tell from a jump? Quite a bit, according to Sparta Performance Science, the Menlo Park, California, athletics-lab-meets-software-startup that developed the tech.

The single best measure of raw performance, it turns out, is how much force an athlete can put into the ground—it determines everything from sprinting ability to the velocity of a pitcher’s fastball.

So Sparta developed an analytics system based on making subjects jump on a force-detecting plate.

Proprietary software records and analyzes the jump microsecond by microsecond.

When crunched, this data shows where athletes are weak and where they’re strong.

“It’s changed how I look at exercise, because we can now customize workouts for each individual,” says Andrea Hudy, assistant athletics director for sports performance at the University of Kansas, which licenses the software for use in basketball and other sports.

In addition to the Jayhawks and Cavaliers, baseball’s Colorado Rockies, the NFL’s Atlanta Falcons, and the University of Notre Dame all use the system.

“We’re now used in every major American sport,” says Sparta founder Phil Wagner.

And things are, presumably, only looking up.

1 second:

The start of the jump. More

Posted in Fitness, Sports Medicine | Leave a comment

Autism, air toxics linked

PITTSBURGH, Oct. 22, 2014 – Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were more likely to have been exposed to higher levels of certain air toxics during their mothers’ pregnancies and the first two years of life compared to children without the condition, according to the preliminary findings of a University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health investigation of children in southwestern Pennsylvania.

This research, funded by The Heinz Endowments, will be presented today at the American Association for Aerosol Research annual meeting in Orlando, Fla.

“Autism spectrum disorders are a major public health problem, and their prevalence has increased dramatically,” said Evelyn Talbott, Dr.P.H., principal investigator of the analysis and professor of epidemiology at Pitt Public Health. “Despite its serious social impact, the causes of autism are poorly understood. Very few studies of autism have included environmental exposures while taking into account other personal and behavioral risk factors. Our analysis is an addition to the small but growing body of research that considers air toxics as one of the risk factors for ASD.”

Dr. Talbott and her colleagues performed a population-based study of families with and without ASD living in six southwestern Pennsylvania counties. The researchers found links between increased levels of chromium and styrene and childhood autism spectrum disorder, a condition that affects one in 68 children.

“This study brings us a step closer toward understanding why autism affects so many families in the Pittsburgh region and nationwide – and reinforces in sobering detail that air quality matters,” said Grant Oliphant, president of The Heinz Endowments. “Our aspirations for truly becoming the most livable city cannot be realized if our children’s health is threatened by dangerous levels of air toxics. Addressing this issue must remain one of our region’s top priorities.”

Autism spectrum disorders are a range of conditions characterized by social deficits and communication difficulties that typically become apparent early in childhood. Reported cases of ASD have risen nearly eight-fold in the last two decades. While previous studies have shown the increase to be partially due to changes in diagnostic practices and greater public awareness of autism, this does not fully explain the increased prevalence. Both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be partially responsible.

Dr. Talbott and her team interviewed 217 families of children with ASD and compared these findings with information from two separate sets of comparison families of children without ASD born during the same time period within the six-county area. The families lived in Allegheny, Armstrong, Beaver, Butler, Washington and Westmoreland counties, and the children were born between 2005 and 2009.

One of the strengths of the study was the ability to have “two types of controls, which provided a comparison of representative air toxics in neighborhoods of those children with and without ASD,” said Dr. Talbott.

For each family, the team used the National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) to estimate the exposure to 30 pollutants known to cause endocrine disruption or neurodevelopmental issues. NATA is the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) ongoing comprehensive evaluation of air toxics in the U.S., most recently conducted in 2005.

Based on the child’s exposure to concentrations of air toxics during the mother’s pregnancy and the first two years of life, the researchers noted that children who fell into higher exposure groups to styrene and chromium were at a 1.4- to two-fold greater risk of ASD, after accounting for the age of the mother, maternal cigarette smoking, race and education. Other NATA compounds associated with increased risk included cyanide, methylene chloride, methanol and arsenic. As these compounds often are found in combination with each other, further study is needed.

Styrene is used in the production of plastics and paints, but also is one of the products of combustion when burning gasoline in vehicles. Chromium is a heavy metal, and air pollution containing it typically is the result of industrial processes and the hardening of steel, but it also can come from power plants. Cyanide, methylene chloride, methanol and arsenic are all used in a number of industries or can be found in vehicle exhaust.

“Our results add to the growing body of evidence linking environmental exposures, such as air pollution, to ASD,” said Dr. Talbott. “The next step will be confirming our findings with studies that measure the specific exposure to air pollutants at an individual level to verify these EPA-modeled estimates.”

Additional investigators on this study were Vincent Arena, Ph.D., Judith Rager, M.P.H., Ravi Sharma, Ph.D., and Lynne Marshall, M.S., all of Pitt. Source

Posted in Autism, Environmental Health: Air Quality | Leave a comment

The Internet of Things in healthcare can drastically cut waste, save lives

Can a profusion of IP-connected sensors on hospital equipment and patients streamline healthcare, cut waste, and lead to better clinical outcomes?

That was the broad topic for a panel of subject experts at Cisco’s Internet of Things World Forum last week in Chicago.

“I firmly believe that out of all the verticals we’ve been talking about for the past two days, healthcare may be a slower adopter, but probably has the biggest potential for benefit, if you look at the impact on improving care, saving lives, and cutting costs,” Greg Carter, head of Cisco System’s Internet of Everything services group at Cisco, told the audience.

Bridget Karlin, acting general manager of IOT strategy at Intel, picked up on the theme of costs in her opening remarks, noting one estimate that $750 billion is wasted annually in healthcare costs.

In other developed nations, the cost of a patient discharge is $6,000 versus $18,000 in the US, said Pranav Patel, general manager at GE Healthcare Services.

“Where’s waste coming from? Soon you realize it’s administrative burden, which is about 300% more,” Patel said, adding that doctors are spending only 30% of their time with patients and the rest on administrative duties.

The Internet of Things will directly affect this workload, Patel suggested. Likewise, the development of new pharmaceuticals — now around $1 billion in R&D for each new drug — will be made substantially less costly through better use of data, and there’ll be more opportunity for what he called “predictive medicine,” whereby treatments are increasingly optimized for each patient. More

 

Posted in Mobile Health: Diagnostics, Mobile Health: NFC, Mobile Health: Sensors, Personalized Medicine, Rapid Diagnostics | Leave a comment

7 ways to feel full without overeating

Newswise — CHICAGO- Not feeling full after or between meals can result in overeating. In the October issue of Food Technology magazine published by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), contributing editor Linda Milo Ohr writes about studies that show eating certain nutrients and foods may help curb appetite and keep one feeling fuller longer. These include:

1. Protein: Adding one protein to breakfast everyday could contribute to improved satiety and diet quality (Leidy, 2013). Another study showed that daily consumption of a high-protein afternoon snack containing soy lead to improved appetite control, satiety, and reduced unhealthy evening snacking in adolescents (Leidy, 2014). Whey, soy, pea, and egg protein all contribute to a feeling of fullness.

2. Whole Grains and Fiber: Substituting whole grain bread with refined wheat bread is linked to lower hunger, higher levels of fullness, and less desire to eat (Forsberg, 2014). Oats increased appetite-control hormones up to four hours after a meal, whereas rice-based foods did not (Beck, 2009).

3. Eggs: Eggs are one of the densest proteins in the non-meat category. It has been shown that eating one egg with breakast will help to reduce hunger between meal times (Vander Wal, 2005).

4. Almonds: The healthy fats in almonds decrease hunger and improve dietary vitamin E intake (Almond Board of California, 2013). People who ate 1.5 oz. of dry-roasted, lightly salted almonds every day helped satiate their hunger without increasing body weight (Tan and Mattes, 2013).

5. Pulses: Part of the legume family, pulses include dried peas, edible beans, lentils, and chickpeas. They are very high in protein and low in fat, and are proven to contribute to a feeling of fullness after consuming (Li, 2014).

6. Saffron Extract: This type of extract is shown to have a beneficial effect on appetite, mood, and behaviors relating to snacking (Gout, 2010), which helps reduce overeating linked to habit or stress.

7. Korean Pine Nut Oil: This kind of nut has high levels of healthy, all-natural fats, which are shown to release the satiety hormone, cholecystokinin (Einerhand, 2006).

Read the full article in Food Technology here

About IFT
This year marks the 75th anniversary of the Institute of Food Technologists. Since its founding in 1939, IFT has been committed to advancing the science of food, both today and tomorrow. Our non-profit scientific society—more than 18,000 members from more than 100 countries—brings together food scientists, technologists and related professions from academia, government and industry. For more information, please visit ift.org.

Posted in Nutrition: Appetite, Nutrition: Food: Eggs, Nutrition: Protein, Nutrition: Satiety | Leave a comment

Why some workers might want to skip high-iron foods

(SALT LAKE CITY)—Workers punching in for the graveyard shift may be better off not eating high-iron foods at night so they don’t disrupt the circadian clock in their livers.

Disrupted circadian clocks, researchers believe, are the reason that shift workers experience higher incidences of type 2 diabetes, obesity and cancer. The body’s primary circadian clock, which regulates sleep and eating, is in the brain. But other body tissues also have circadian clocks, including the liver, which regulates blood glucose levels.

In a new study in Diabetes online, University of Utah researchers show that dietary iron plays an important role in the circadian clock of the liver. Judith A. Simcox, Ph.D., a University of Utah postdoctoral fellow in biochemistry, is the study’s lead author.

“Iron is like the dial that sets the timing of the clock,” Simcox says. “Discovering a factor, such as iron, that sets the circadian rhythm of the liver may have broad implications for people who do shift work.”

Each of the body’s circadian clocks operates on its own schedule to perform its necessary functions. The circadian clock in the brain, for example, is set by light, telling people to wake up in the morning and sleep when it’s dark. Ideally all the body’s clocks would work on their correct schedules. But, as anyone who has ever been on a graveyard or swing shift knows, working off-hours can cause one’s circadian clocks to get out of synch and disrupt sleeping and eating patterns.

Numerous studies have found that shift workers experience higher incidences of obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders. The risk for cardiovascular disease, stroke and cancer also is higher among those workers. In 2007, a World Health Organization subcommittee declared that shift work is probably carcinogenic.

External Signals

The liver’s circadian clock is set by food intake. As people sleep this clock helps maintain a constant blood glucose level, but then causes it to spike just before they wake up. When the clock in the liver gets out of synch with the one in the brain, it may contribute to metabolic diseases, according to Donald A. McClain, M.D., Ph.D., University of Utah professor of medicine (endocrinology) and biochemistry and senior author on the study.

McClain and Simcox wanted to identify external signals that set the circadian clock in the liver. They fed iron to mice as part of their natural eating cycle and observed that dietary iron increases the cellular concentration of heme, an oxygen-carrying iron compound found in hemoglobin. They found that when heme binds to a circadian protein–a substance whose function Simcox likens to that of a cog in a mechanical clock–the protein’s activity increases and causes the liver to optimally control blood glucose levels.

Increased activity of a circadian protein is healthy when it occurs in the liver’s natural clock cycle. But if this happens at a time that is out of synch with the circadian clock, such as during a graveyard shift, it could result in abnormal blood glucose levels.

“When a shift worker eats foods high in iron at night it could exacerbate the lack of synchronization between the clock in the liver and the main one in the brain,” says McClain, who’s also the University Health Sciences’ associate vice president for clinical research and director of the Center for Clinical and Translational Science. “By tending to flatten the circadian variation of metabolism, high iron in tissues may also interfere with the normal day to night fluctuations associated with a healthy metabolic system.”

More research is needed to see how the results of their study could affect dietary recommendations for everyone, and shift workers in particular. The investigators are quick to point out that too little iron is also unhealthy. Ultimately, they hope their studies define an optimal range of iron that is much narrower than the current “normal” range.

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Researchers from the University of Utah’s Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry and the Veterans Administration Research Service at the V.A. Salt Lake City Health System also contributed to the study. Source

Posted in Circadian Rhythms, Nutrition: Iron, Shift Work, Workplace Issues | Leave a comment