Different protocols of treadmill exercise induce distinct neuroplastic effects in rat brain motor areas

Brain Res. 2015 Jul 29. pii: S0006-8993(15)00572-7. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2015.06.052. [Epub ahead of print]

Different protocols of treadmill exercise induce distinct neuroplastic effects in rat brain motor areas.

Real CC1, Garcia PC2, Britto LR3, Pires RS4.

Author information

1Laboratory of Cellular Neurobiology, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-000, Brazil. Electronic address: real.fisio@gmail.com.

2Laboratory of Cellular Neurobiology, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-000, Brazil; Master’s and Doctoral Programs in Physical Therapy, Universidade Cidade de São Paulo, São Paulo,SP, 03071-000, Brazil.

3Laboratory of Cellular Neurobiology, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-000, Brazil.

4Master’s and Doctoral Programs in Physical Therapy, Universidade Cidade de São Paulo, São Paulo,SP, 03071-000, Brazil.

Abstract

A variety of exercise protocols have been used to promote experimental neuroplasticity.

However, the plastic brain responses generated by several aspects of training (types, frequency, regimens, duration) remain undetermined.

The aim of this study was to compare the plastic changes in the glutamatergic system and synaptic proteins in motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum promoted by two different treadmill exercise regimens.

The present study analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting the expression of the subunits of AMPA receptors (GluA1 and GluA2/3) and synaptic proteins (synapsin I and synaptophysin) in adult male Wistar rat brains.

The animals were divided into animals subjected to two different frequencies of aerobic exercise groups and sedentary animals.

The exercise groups were: intermittent treadmill exercise (ITE) – animals that exercised 3 times a week (every other day) during four weeks, and continuous treadmill exercise (CTE) – animals that exercised every day during four weeks.

Our results reveal that different protocols of treadmill exercise were able to promote distinct synaptic reorganization processes among the exercised groups.

In general, the intermittent exercise regimen induced a higher expression of presynaptic proteins, whereas the continuous exercise regimen increased postsynaptic GluA1 and GluA2/3 receptors.

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Partial ACL injuries and Pilates: new study

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015 Aug 1. [Epub ahead of print]

The effectiveness of Pilates for partial anterior cruciate ligament injury.

Çelik D1, Turkel N.

Author information

1Division of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Istanbul University, 34740, Bakırkoy, Istanbul, Turkey, ptderya@hotmail.com.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

This study explored the effects of Pilates on the muscle strength, function, and instability of patients with partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in situations in which a non-surgical treatment option is preferred.

METHODS:

Fifty participants 20-45 years of age who were diagnosed with isolated ACL injuries were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the Pilates exercise group (n = 24) or the control group (n = 26). The subjects in the Pilates exercise group performed basic mat exercises that focused on the muscle strength and flexibility of the lower limbs and core muscles during each class session, which met three times per week for 12 weeks. The control group did not receive any treatment or home exercise programme. All patients were evaluated using the Lysholm Knee Scale, the Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength. Patient satisfaction regarding improvement in knee stability was assessed using the Global Rating of Change scale.

RESULTS:

The Pilates group experienced significant improvement over the control group as measured by the difference in quadriceps strength at 12 weeks (p = 0.03). Both groups showed some clinical change over time, but the Pilates group improved for all outcome measurements at the 12-week follow-up, and the control group only improved for functional outcomes. Patient satisfaction with the level of knee stability based on the Global Rating of Change scale was higher in the Pilates group than in the control group.

CONCLUSION:

Although both groups exhibited improvements in knee strength and functional outcomes, the results suggest that Pilates is a superior management approach over a control treatment for increasing quadriceps strength in participants with partial ACL injury. Pilates may provide clinicians a novel option when choosing a treatment for a partial ACL injury. Further study is needed to determine whether certain subgroups of individuals might achieve an added benefit with this approach.

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The uneasy, unbreakable link of money, medicine

In the AMA Journal of Ethics, Dr. Eli Adashi writes that after centuries of concerns about the potentially compromising role of money in medicine, the debate remains irreconcilable and the link remains indivisible. Even the reforms of Obamacare, he writes, may not change much.

PROVIDENCE, R.I. [Brown University] — Even after centuries of earnest oaths and laws, the debate about whether money compromises medicine remains unresolved, observes Dr. Eli Adashi in a new paper in the AMA Journal of Ethics. The problem might not be truly intractable, he said, but recent reforms will likely make little progress or difference.

“This is one of those things we have to appreciate as being with us for a long time,” said Adashi, former dean of medicine and biological sciences at Brown University. “It will probably be with us forever. It’s probably not entirely fixable unless one really made a concerted effort driven by consensus to do so, but that doesn’t exist. I think it’s a useful exercise to call it as it is.”

Those who worry physicians will be compromised by money — and certainly not everyone does — have sought to prevent it for centuries, Adashi writes. Physician’s oaths dating back hundreds of years in Spain, India, Japan all decry greed (and in one case, miserliness). Nevertheless, in different countries and to different extents medicine and money remain entangled not only in how physicians make a living, but also in the debt their education creates, in their entrepreneurship, or by the other stakeholders in their industry, be they insurers or drug companies.

Even in the relatively laissez faire United States, reforms over the last few decades have sought to lessen potential challenges, Adashi notes. The “Stark Laws” attempted to curb physician referrals of patients to businesses they own. The Affordable Care Act took on the matter of disclosure of industry payments to physicians. The Affordable Care Act also encourages a transition from “fee-for-volume” payment, in which doctors are paid more for doing more procedures (as fast as possible), to “fee-for-value,” in which their incentive is to produce a quality result at minimal cost.

But even that latter reform, Adashi writes, may not prove decisive.

“Whether or not a momentous alteration of the economic ground rules on this scale will in effect change hearts and minds remains doubtful,” he concludes. “More than likely, money and medicine will remain indivisible and irreconcilable for some time to come. Few expect otherwise.”

The full essay is available online.

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Drinking at conception boosts diabetes risk for baby: UQ study

Babies conceived by women who drink alcohol around the time of conception face dramatically increased risks of type 2 diabetes and obesity in early middle age, a University of Queensland study has found.

The discovery was made by School of Biomedical Sciences scientist Associate Professor Karen Moritz during research into how events – particularly alcohol consumption – before and during pregnancy affect the long-term health of offspring.

Using a laboratory rat model, Dr Moritz and PhD student Ms Emelie Gardebjer discovered that the equivalent of five standard drinks consumed around the time of conception altered the development of the foetus.

“Before the egg implants, before any organs start to develop, alcohol consumption somehow causes changes to the embryo,” Dr Moritz said.

“Anything that affects foetal development can cause long term programming, which means offspring can be born with increased risk and susceptibility to disease later in life.

“Monitoring the offspring of the laboratory rat model, we found the risk of becoming obese and developing type 2 diabetes in early middle age dramatically increased.

“The usual risk factors of these two diseases are attributed to poor diet and lack of exercise, but our research showed exposure to alcohol around conception presents a risk similar to following a high-fat diet for a major proportion of life.”

Dr Moritz said the study was particularly important as 50 per cent of pregnancies in Australia were unplanned.

“Although most women stop drinking once they discover they are pregnant, a significant proportion are consuming alcohol at the time of conception, before they even know,” she said.

“Our future research will be focusing on the possibility of administering preventative interventions.

“One possibility is giving some type of nutrient to the mother, even in later pregnancy, to see if the changes caused by the early alcohol exposure can be prevented, and in turn prevent the possible long-term disease outcomes for offspring.”

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The research is published in The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.

Media: Associate Professor Karen Moritz, k.moritz@uq.edu.au, + 61 7 3365 4598; UQ School of Biomedical Sciences Marketing Manager Lynda Flower, l.flower@uq.edu.au, +61 7 3365 1536

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Male caregivers may be less likely to ask for help

(Reuters Health) – Among unpaid, informal caregivers of older people with illness or disability, male caregivers in particular can be ambivalent about asking for help, according to a new review.

Caregivers are often family or close friends. Most are women. In the U.K., for example, 58% of informal caregivers are female, according to lead author Dr. Nan Greenwood of Kingston University and St George’s at the University of London.

But that leaves more than 40% who are men, and their experience still needs closer attention with specific research, she said.

It can be harder to study male caregivers because they are less likely to identify themselves that way, Greenwood told Reuters Health by phone.

“A lot of the people the government would call a ‘carer’ would call themselves a husband, and this may be particularly true of men,” she said. “They are less likely to categorize themselves as carers so they don’t even think to go for support. They see themselves as doing what a husband or son would do.”

This may be true, but since there has been little study directly comparing the male and female experience of caregiving, it is hard to say, she noted.

The new review synthesized seven studies from North America, most including older people caring for people with dementia.

 

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4 Dead from Legionnaires’ Outbreak in NYC

A fourth person has died in what the New York City Health Department is describing as an “unusual” spike in Legionnaires’ disease in the Bronx, officials said Saturday.

Sixty-five cases of the disease, a severe, often lethal, form of pneumonia spread through the air, have been reported in the south Bronx since July 10, city officials said. The four patients who died had underlying health conditions, authorities said.

The cases have been reported primarily in High Bridge, Morrisania, Hunts Point and Mott Haven since July 10, the Health Department said.

Legionnaires’ disease is caused by exposure to the bacteria Legionella; in most cases, people are exposed to the bacteria by inhaling contaminated aerosols from cooling towers, hot tubs, showers and faucets or drinking water.

Twenty-two buildings have been visited as “disease detectives” hunt for the source of the outbreak, the city said Friday. Seventeen of those buildings have cooling towers — three of those tested positive for Legionella, including one at Lincoln Hospital; one at Concourse Plaza, a private housing facility; and one at the Opera House Hotel.

“Whatever’s in the atmosphere gets pulled into the cooling tower, so there’s a lot more dirt and debris and areas that organisms can grow in,” Pete Stempkowski, of Clarity Water Technologies, said.

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Cancer death risk lower for women who are active as adolescents

Main Finding(s): Women who participated in exercise as adolescents had a reduced risk of death from cancer and all causes in their middle and older ages.

Journal in Which the Study was Published: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research

Author: Sarah J. Nechuta, MPH, PhD, assistant professor of medicine at Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center in Nashville, Tennessee

Background: Understanding the long-term impact of modifiable lifestyle factors such as exercise in adolescence is of critical importance and can have substantial public health implications for disease prevention over the course of life, Nechuta explained.

How the Study Was Conducted: Nechuta and colleagues used data from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study, a large, population-based prospective cohort study of about 75,000 women ages 40 to 70, from Shanghai, China, led by Wei Zheng, MD, PhD, at the Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center. The study had detailed information on participants reported at baseline recruitment, including self-reported exercise participation between the ages of 13 and 19, adult lifestyle-related factors, and mortality outcomes. In-person interviews were conducted to collect baseline data and follow-up data every two to three years.

After an average of 12.9 years of follow-up, there were 5,282 deaths, including 2,375 from cancer and 1,620 from cardiovascular disease.

Results: After adjusting for socioeconomic factors in adult life, the researchers found that women who participated in exercise as adolescents for 1.33 hours a week or less had a 16 percent lowered risk for death from cancer, and a 15 percent lowered risk for death from all causes; those who participated in exercise as adolescents for more than 1.33 hours a week had a 13 percent lowered risk for death from all causes.

After adjusting for socioeconomic factors in adult life, women who participated in team sports as adolescents had a 14 percent lowered risk for death from cancer, and a 10 percent lowered risk for death from all causes. Women who participated in exercise both in their adolescent and adult lives had a 20 percent lowered risk for death from all causes.

Author Comment: In an interview, Nechuta said, “In women, adolescent exercise participation, regardless of adult exercise, was associated with reduced risk of cancer and all-cause mortality. Our results support the importance of promoting exercise participation in adolescence to reduce mortality in later life and highlight the critical need for the initiation of disease prevention early in life.

“While we found adolescent exercise to be associated with lowered risk of death from cancer and cardiovascular disease as adults, some associations were attenuated after adjusting for adult factors that may influence mortality later in life, such as exercise, diet, body mass index [BMI], socioeconomic status, and a history of chronic diseases. However, it is important to note that adult factors, such as adult exercise, BMI, and chronic diseases are potentially influenced by adolescent exercise, and adjusting for adult factors in these types of studies may not always be the best approach, as overadjustment could be a concern,” Nechuta added.

“It is important to note that the exercise data were self-reported and potential measurement error cannot be excluded. Further, we only had data on exercise and did not have information on activities related to transportation or occupation. Future studies with more detailed adolescent physical activity assessments and studies in other populations are needed,” she noted.

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Funding & Disclosures: This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health. Nechuta declares no conflicts of interest.

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Diabetes link to sedentary habits: new info

(Reuters Health) – People who are inactive for hours on end each day may be more likely to develop diabetes than people who spend more time moving around, a study confirms.

Researchers gave accelerometers to about 2,000 people to track their movements during waking hours for one week. Five years later, compared to people who were sedentary for less than six hours at the start of the study, those who had been inactive for at least 10 hours a day had almost four times higher odds of being diabetic.

“We are beginning to believe that being highly sedentary is something different than not getting exercise,” said lead author Bethany Barone Gibbs, a researcher in health and physical activity at the University of Pittsburgh.

“Someone who runs 30 minutes every day can sit for the other 15 hours of the day at work, commuting, and at home and this person would be considered physically active but also quite sedentary,” Gibbs said by email. “On the other hand, a cleaning professional might never exercise but might spend most of their day on their feet in light activity – this person would be inactive but have very little sedentary time.”
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Kraft Singles Recall

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE – July 31, 2015 – Northfield, Ill. – The Kraft Heinz Company is voluntarily recalling select code dates and manufacturing codes of Kraft Singles individually-wrapped slices due to the possibility that a thin strip of the individual packaging film may remain adhered to the slice after the wrapper has been removed. If the film sticks to the slice and is not removed, it could potentially cause a choking hazard.

The recall applies to 3-lb. and 4-lb. sizes of Kraft Singles American and White American pasteurized prepared cheese product with a Best When Used By Date of 29 DEC 15 through 04 JAN 16, followed by the Manufacturing Code S54 or S55.

The S54 and S55 codes refer to the two production lines on which the impacted product was made. The Best When Used By Date and Manufacturing Code are stamped on both the larger 3-lb. and 4-lb. boxes and the enclosed individual 1-lb. packages.

No other sizes, varieties or code dates are included in this recall. And no products with manufacturing codes other than “S54″ and “S55″ after the code date are included in this recall.

There have been 10 consumer complaints to date about the packaging, including three reports of consumers choking.

Approximately 36,000 cases of the recalled product were shipped by Kraft Heinz to retailers in the U.S., Puerto Rico and Grand Cayman. Kraft Heinz did not ship this product to Canada or anywhere other than the U.S., Puerto Rico and Grand Cayman.

We deeply regret this situation and apologize to any consumers we have disappointed. Consumers who purchased this product should not eat it. They should return it to the store where purchased for an exchange or full refund. Consumers in the U.S. and Puerto Rico can also contact Kraft Heinz Consumer Relations for a full refund, at 1-800-432-3101, Monday through Friday, 9am to 6pm Eastern.

The following is being recalled:

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Six foods that are actually cheaper at Whole Foods

Whole Foods is working hard to shake off its reputation as “Whole Paycheck.”

And now that more and more major chains are increasing their offering of organic and socially responsible food items, Whole Foods is lowering its prices to prove that it doesn’t cost an arm or leg to shop at its stores.

Here are the six things that are actually cheaper at Whole Foods than most major food chains.

1. Canned Organic Black Beans

Food bloggers started noting that a can of organic black beans was cheaper at Whole Food as early as 2008. Additional price comparisons in subsequent years have continued to confirm the lower price of canned organic black beans at Whole Foods than at major grocery chains. For example, in July 2015 at a Whole Foods store in Honolulu, I found a 15 oz. can of 365 Organic Black Beans for $1.99, which was 40 cents cheaper than a 15 oz. can of Safeway’s Organics Black Beans at a nearby location.

Deals site Cheapism compared the prices of items at a Whole Foods on Long Island, New York against those with a nearby ShopRite. One of the items that stands out is a 14-ounce pack of Tofurkey vegan sausage links.

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A Brief Guide to Quitting a Bad Habit

A Brief Guide to Quitting a Bad Habit

By Leo Babauta

There aren’t many of us who don’t have some bad habit we’d like to quit: smoking, sweets, shopping, nail-biting, porn, excessive checking of phones or social media, other distractions …

The problem is that we think we don’t have the willpower, faced with past evidence of failure after failure when we’ve tried to quit before.

We don’t think we can quit, so we don’t even try. Or if we do try, we give ourselves an “out,” and don’t fully commit ourselves.

Let me tell you this: quitting a bad habit takes everything you’ve got.

It’s hard, but doable — if you put your entire being into it.

If you’re ready to finally quit something, here’s a short guide to doing just that.

10-Steps — Just as Good as the 12-Step Folk

You don’t actually need to follow every single one of these steps to quit a habit, but the more of them you do, the higher your chances. I recommend all of them if you want to be all in.

  1. Have a big motivation. Lots of times people quit things because it sounds nice: “It would be nice to quit caffeine.” But that’s a weak motivation. What you really want is strong motivation: I quit smoking because I knew it was killing me, and I knew my kids would smoke as adults if I didn’t quit. Know your Why, and connect with it throughout your quit. Write it down at the top of a document called your “Quit Plan.”
  2. Make a big commitment. Now that you know your motivation, be fully committed. A common mistake is say, “I’ll do this today,” but then letting yourself off the hook when the urges get strong. Instead, tell everyone about it. Ask for their help. Give them regular updates and be accountable. Have a support partner you can call on when you need help. Ask people not to let you off the hook. Be all in.
  3. Be aware of your triggers. What events trigger your bad habit? The habit doesn’t just happen, but is triggered by something else: you smoke when other people smoke, or you shop when you’re stressed out, or you eat junk food when you’re bored, or you watch porn when you’re lonely, or you check your social media when you feel the need to fill space in your day. Watch yourself for a few days and notice what triggers your habit, make a list of triggers on your Quit Plan, and then develop an awareness of when those triggers happen.
  4. Know what need the habit is meeting. We have bad habits for a reason — they meet some kind of need. For every trigger you wrote down, look at what need the habit might be meeting in that case. The habit might be helping you cope with stress. For some of the other triggers, it might help you to socialize, or cope with sadness, boredom, loneliness, feeling bad about yourself, being sick, dealing with a crisis, needing a break or treat or comfort. Write these needs down on your Quit Plan, and think of other ways you might cope with them.
  5. Have a replacement habit for each trigger. So what will you do when you face the trigger of stress? You can’t just not do your old bad habit — it will leave an unfilled need, a hole that you will fill with your old bad habit if you don’t meet the need somehow. So have a good habit to do when you get stressed, or when someone gets angry at you, etc. Make a list of all your triggers on your Quit Plan, with a new habit for each one (one new, good habit can serve multiple triggers if you like).
  6. Watch the urges, and delay. You will get urges to do your bad habit, when the triggers happen. These urges are dangerous if you just act on them without thinking. Learn to recognize them as they happen, and just sit there watch the urge rise and get stronger, and then and fall. Delay yourself, if you really want to act on the urge. Breathe. Drink some water. Call someone for help. Go for a walk. Get out of the situation. The urge will go away, if you just delay.
  7. Do the new habit each time the trigger happens. This will take a lot of conscious effort — be very aware of when the trigger happens, and very aware of doing the new habit instead of the old automatic one. If you mess up, forgive yourself, but you need to be very conscious of being consistent here, so the new habit will start to become automatic. This is one reason it’s difficult to start with bad habits — if there are multiple triggers that happen randomly throughout the day, it means you need to be conscious of your habit change all day, every day, for weeks or more.
  8. Be aware of your thinking. We justify bad habits with thinking. You have to watch your thoughts and realize when you’re making excuses for doing your old bad habit, or when you start feeling like giving up instead of sticking to your change. Don’t believe your rationalizations.
  9. Quit gradually. Until recently, I was a fan of the Quit Cold Turkey philosophy, but I now believe you can quit gradually. That means cut back from 20 cigarettes to 15, then 10, then 5, then zero. If you do this a week at a time, it won’t seem so difficult, and you might have a better chance of succeeding.
  10. Learn from mistakes. We all mess up sometimes — if you do, be forgiving, and don’t let one mistake derail you. See what happened, accept it, figure out a better plan for next time. Write this on your Quit Plan. Your plan will get better and better as you continually improve it. In this way, mistakes are helping you improve the method.

I’m not saying this is an easy method, but many people have failed because they ignored the ideas here. Don’t be one of them. Put yourself all into this effort, find your motivation, and replace your habit with a better habit for each trigger. You got this.

Help Quitting Your Habit

If you’d like help quitting your habit, join my Sea Change Program as we learn how to quit a habit in August. It’s free to try for a week, so sign up today and do your quit with us!

The program offers:

  1. Articles & videos to teach you about the concept of quitting.
  2. Daily reminder emails if you want them.
  3. A forum for discussion.
  4. A live video webinar with me where you can ask questions.

Sign up here to be a part of the Quit a Bad Habit module.

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How to Bounce Back After Getting Laid Off

Losing your job is hard. It dents your self-esteem; it’s tough on your bank account; and if you’re not smart about your next steps, it can derail your career. Aside from getting back on the horse and looking for a new job, what else should you do to get back on track? How do you maintain your self-confidence? Who should you talk to about the situation? And how should you frame the layoff to future employers?

What the Experts Say

Getting laid off is perhaps the most professionally traumatic experience you’ll ever have.

“The old adage that it’s not about you is nonsense,” says John Lees, the UK-based career strategist and the author of How To Get A Job You Love.

“It’s a rejection — the company is saying, ‘We don’t need you. We can manage without you.’ It feels personal.”

While it’s natural to feel this way, you mustn’t lose perspective. All in all, “getting laid off is a manageable setback on the scale of human experience,” Lees says. And it can even lead to something positive.

“Try to think about it as an opportunity that’s ultimately going to do you some good,” says Priscilla Claman, the president of Career Strategies, a Boston-based consulting firm and a contributor to the HBR Guide to Getting the Right Job.

“A lot of people stay in their jobs for too long; they get stuck and can’t move on.”

A layoff gives you a fresh start.

Here are other ways to bounce back from this difficult and often stressful situation.

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Posted in Human Behavior: Rejection, Human Behavior: Shame, Human Behavior: Stress, Unemployment, Workplace Issues | Leave a comment

How to Overcome the Top 5 Fitness Barriers

Sticking to a regular exercise schedule isn’t easy. After all, there are plenty of potential hindrances — time, boredom, injuries, self-confidence. But these issues don’t need to stand in your way.

Darcy Reber, nurse practitioner at Mayo Clinic Health System in Cannon Falls, shares practical strategies for overcoming common barriers to fitness.

  1. “I don’t have enough time to exercise.”

Setting aside time to exercise can be a challenge. Use a little creativity to get the most out of your time.

Squeeze in exercise throughout the day. If you don’t have time for a full workout, don’t sweat it. Shorter spurts of exercise, such as 10 minutes of walking spaced throughout the day, offer benefits too. Additionally, you can try office exercises.

Get up earlier. If your days are packed and the evening hours are just as hectic, get up 30 minutes earlier twice a week to exercise. Once you’ve adjusted to early-morning workouts, add another day or two to the routine.

Drive less, walk more. Park in the back row of the parking lot or a few blocks away and walk to your destination.

Revamp your rituals. Your weekly Saturday matinee with the kids or best friend could be reborn as your weekly Saturday bike ride, rock-climbing lesson or trip to the pool.

  1. “I think exercise is boring.”

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Posted in Commercial Fitness Industry, Human Behavior: Habits, Procrastination | Leave a comment