Dietary Magnesium Intake Is Inversely Associated with Mortality in Adults at High Cardiovascular Disease Risk 1,2,3
First published November 20, 2013, doi: 10.3945/jn.113.183012 J. Nutr. January 1, 2014 vol. 144 no. 1 55-60
Miguel A. Martínez-González5,8,
Miguel Ángel Muñoz5,15,
Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós5,18,
Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez19, and
on behalf of the PREDIMED Study Group
+ Author Affiliations
4Human Nutrition Unit, University Hospital of Sant Joan de Reus, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, IISPV, Rovira i Virgili University, Reus, Spain
5CIBERobn, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain
6Department of Internal Medicine, August Pi i Sunyer Institute of Biomedical Research (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
7Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
8Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
9Lipid Clinic, Endocrinology and Nutrition Service, IDIBAPS, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
10Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Barcelona Biomedical Research Park, Barcelona, Spain
11Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Araba, Vitoria, Spain
12Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain
13Institute of Health Sciences, University of Balearic Islands and Son Espases Hospital, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
14Department of Family Medicine, Primary Care Division of Sevilla, San Pablo Health Center, Sevilla, Spain
15Primary Care Division, Catalan Institute of Health, IDiap-Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain
16Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain
17Lipids and Vascular Risk Unit, Internal Medicine, Bellvitge University Hospital, Llobregat Hospitalet, Barcelona, Spain
18Nutrition and Food Safety Research Institute, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; and
19La Grasa Institute, Spanish National Research Council, Sevilla, Spain
↵*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The relation between dietary magnesium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality was evaluated in several prospective studies, but few of them have assessed the risk of all-cause mortality, which has never been evaluated in Mediterranean adults at high cardiovascular risk.
The aim of this study was to assess the association between magnesium intake and CVD and mortality risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk with high average magnesium intake.
The present study included 7216 men and women aged 55–80 y from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, a randomized clinical trial.
Participants were assigned to 1 of 2 Mediterranean diets (supplemented with nuts or olive oil) or to a control diet (advice on a low-fat diet).
Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the National Death Index and medical records.
We fitted multivariable-adjusted Cox regressions to assess associations between baseline energy-adjusted tertiles of magnesium intake and relative risk of CVD and mortality.
Multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the associations between yearly repeated measurements of magnesium intake and mortality.
After a median follow-up of 4.8 y, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and 277 cardiovascular events occurred.
Energy-adjusted baseline magnesium intake was inversely associated with cardiovascular, cancer, and all-cause mortality.
Compared with lower consumers, individuals in the highest tertile of magnesium intake had a 34% reduction in mortality risk (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.95; P < 0.01).
Dietary magnesium intake was inversely associated with mortality risk in Mediterranean individuals at high risk of CVD.
This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639.