Alzheimer’s risk higher due to Western diet

Globally, about 42 million people now have dementia, with Alzheimer’s disease as the most common type of dementia. Rates of Alzheimer’s disease are rising worldwide. The most important risk factors seem to be linked to diet, especially the consumption of meat, sweets, and high-fat dairy products that characterize a Western Diet. For example, when Japan made the nutrition transition from the traditional Japanese diet to the Western diet, Alzheimer’s disease rates rose from 1% in 1985 to 7% in 2008, with rates lagging the nutrition transition by 20-25 years. The evidence of these risk factors, which come from ecological and observational studies, also shows that fruits, vegetables, grains, low-fat dairy products, legumes, and fish are associated with reduced risk. “Using Multicountry Ecological and Observational Studies to Determine Dietary Risk Factors for Alzheimer’s Disease,” a review article from the Journal of the American College of Nutrition presents the data.

In addition to reviewing the journal literature, a new ecological study was conducted using Alzheimer’s disease prevalence from 10 countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Egypt, India, Mongolia, Nigeria, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and the United States) along with dietary supply data 5, 10, and 15 years before the prevalence data. Dietary supply of meat or animal products (minus milk) 5 years before Alzheimer’s disease prevalence had the highest correlations with Alzheimer’s disease prevalence in this study. The study discussed the specific risk each country and region faces for developing Alzheimer’s disease based on their associated dietary habits.

Residents of the United States seem to be at particular risk, with each person in the U.S. having about a 4% chance of developing Alzheimer’s disease, likely due in part to the Western dietary pattern, which tends to include a large amount of meat consumption. The author, William B. Grant, states, “reducing meat consumption could significantly reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease as well as of several cancers, diabetes mellitus type 2, stroke, and, likely, chronic kidney disease.”

He concludes, “Mounting evidence from ecological and observational studies, as well as studies of mechanisms, indicates that the Western dietary pattern — especially the large amount of meat in that diet — is strongly associated with risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and several other chronic diseases. Although the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with about half the risk for Alzheimer’s disease of the Western diet, the traditional diets of countries such as India, Japan, and Nigeria, with very low meat consumption, are associated with an additional 50% reduction in risk of Alzheimer’s disease.”

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A ‘Western Diet’ Increases Alzheimer’s Risk

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Alzheimer’s rise in Japan may be because of switch to Western diet: more meat, less rice

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Diets avoiding dry-cooked foods can protect against diabetes, say Mount Sinai researchers

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Treatment Option for Alzheimer’s Disease Possible: UK Researchers

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4 Things to Know About Tau Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease

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Fructose alters hundreds of brain genes, which can lead to a wide range of diseases: UCLA scientists report that diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids can reverse the damage

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Otulipenia, a new inflammatory disease

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Hidden tooth infections may predispose people to heart disease

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Exercise results in lowered dementia risk

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Meat Consumption Contributing to Global Obesity

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Why do women live longer than men?

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Fat, sugar cause bacterial changes that may relate to loss of cognitive function: Oregon State University

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Yogurt probiotics alter brain function: UCLA study

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Good-cholesterol tomatoes created at UCLA

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How resveratrol confers health benefits: new study

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Stiffer arteries negatively affect memory and other critical brain processes

Newswise — Westminster, Colo. (August 26, 2016)—As we age, our arteries gradually become less flexible, making it harder for the heart to pump blood throughout the body. This hardening of the arteries occurs faster in people with high blood pressure and increases the risk for heart problems. Using a new mouse model, researchers have found that stiffer arteries can also negatively affect memory and other critical brain processes.

The new research may eventually reveal how arterial stiffness leads to Alzheimer’s and other diseases involving dementia. The work will be presented at the American Physiological Society’s Inflammation, Immunity and Cardiovascular Disease conference.

“Although the relationship between arterial stiffness and dementia has been hinted in human studies, the mechanisms by which arterial stiffness affects brain functions remain poorly understood,” said study co-author M. Florencia Iulita, PhD, Herbert H. Jasper Postdoctoral Fellow in Neurosciences at the University of Montreal, Canada. “This is partly due to the lack of good animal models that are specific for this condition.”

To better study arterial stiffness, the researchers modeled the condition in mice by applying calcium chloride to one of the mouse’s carotid arteries. This treatment makes the artery stiff without increasing the animal’s blood pressure or decreasing the blood volume through the carotids, which can themselves damage the brain. With the new animal model, the researchers could study the direct effects of arterial stiffness on the brain’s function and health.

When the mice with stiffened carotids were presented with a task requiring memory, they showed slower learning and remembered less than the healthy mice. The brain vessels of the mice with arterial stiffness were also less responsive to stimuli that normally increase cerebral blood flow when required, suggesting that the brains of these mice might not be getting adequate blood supply to function properly.

The researchers also observed higher levels of amyloid-beta peptides in the brains of mice with arterial stiffness. Amyloid-beta peptides tend to clump together and are found in high amounts in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease.

“Our study provides evidence that arterial stiffness negatively affects vital brain processes,” said study coauthor Hélène Girouard, PhD, associate professor at University of Montreal. “A better understanding of the mechanisms by which arterial stiffness affects brain functions and leads to dementia could allow us to identify new targets for therapeutics that might prevent or delay Alzheimer’s disease in the elderly and hypertensive individuals. Our new animal model will also allow us to test whether drugs that correct arterial stiffness can protect the brain.”

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Blueberries could reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness

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Antioxidant supplements ease arterial stiffness: new study

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Kids’ sedentary behaviors leading to arterial stiffness need to be discouraged: researchers

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COPD link to arterial stiffness: new study

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Early Links To Alzheimer’s Can Appear In Your 40s

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Why White Males Have Shifted Allegiance to Republican Party

Over the last 40 years, white males have shifted their allegiance from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party and it has more to do with economics than politics, says Harland Prechel, a professor of political and economic sociology at Texas A&M University.

Prechel says in the 1960s, upon graduation from high school, most white males in the U.S. were assured of a job in the expanding post-WWII economy either in the growing blue-collar or white-collar labor markets.

“The OPEC oil price increases in the 1970s and the increase in global competition in subsequent years resulted in a decline in the previously stable manufacturing sector and the U.S. economy has not recovered from it,” he asserts. “As a result, jobs disappeared in the manufacturing sector and wages have grown at a much slower pace in the economy as a whole.”

Prechel says although economic growth has generally been faster during Democratic Administrations, “the working and middle classes appear to feel abandoned by the Democratic Party. Democrats have also been more supportive of women and minorities who compete for jobs that were historically filled by white males.”

And, like in the economic downturn in the early 1980s when Ronald Reagan was running for the presidency, Prechel notes many white males and members of the working and middle classes in general appear to be willing to support a candidate that advocates change and purports to create opportunities for them.

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Breast milk sugar may protect babies against deadly infection

A type of sugar found naturally in some women’s breast milk may protect newborn babies from infection with a potentially life threatening bacterium called Group B streptococcus, according to a new study from Imperial College London.

These bacteria are a common cause of meningitis in newborns and the leading cause of infection in the first three months of life in the UK and globally.

The new research, on 183 women in The Gambia and published in the journal Clinical and Translational Immunology, suggests a sugar found in some women’s breast milk protect babies against the bacteria.

The bug is carried naturally in the vagina and bowels by up to one in three women and can be transferred to the baby during childbirth or in breast milk. In the UK pregnant women deemed high risk are offered a test for the bacteria, or women can pay privately. This test consists of a swab a few weeks before a woman’s due date. However there is still a chance of a woman picking up the bacteria in her gut at some point between the test and giving birth (once the bug gets into the gut of the mother or baby it can trigger an infection).

However, the new research, from the Centre for International Child Health at Imperial, found that naturally-occurring sugars in a woman’s breast milk may have protective effects against Group B streptococcus.

Each woman’s breast milk contains a mixture of many different types of sugar, called human milk oligosaccharides. These are not digested in the baby’s tummy and act as food for the ‘friendly bacteria’ in a baby’s intestine.

The type of sugars a woman produces in her breast milk are partly dictated by her genetic make-up. A type of genetic system in particular, called the Lewis antigen system (which is involved in making the ABO blood group), plays an important role in determining breast milk sugars.

In the study, the team tested all the mothers’ breast milk for the sugars that are known to be controlled by these Lewis genes. They also tested women and their babies for Group B streptococcus at birth, six days later, and then between 60 and 89 days after birth.

The team found women who produced breast milk sugars linked to the Lewis gene were less likely to have the bacteria in their gut, and their babies were also less likely to get the bacteria from their mothers at birth.

In addition, among the babies who had the bacteria in their guts at birth, the infants whose mothers produced a specific sugar in their breast milk, called lacto-n-difucohexaose I, were more likely to have cleared the bacteria from their body by 60-89 days after birth. This suggests this breast milk sugar, which is linked to the Lewis gene,  may have a protective effect.

The researchers then went on to show in the laboratory that breast milk containing this particular sugar – lacto-n-difucohexaose I – was better at killing the Group B streptococcus bacteria compared to breast milk without this specific sugar.

Around half of all women in the world are thought to produce the sugar lacto-N-difucohexaose I.

Dr Nicholas Andreas, lead author of the research from the Department of Medicine at Imperial said: “Although this is early-stage research it demonstrates the complexity of breast milk, and the benefits it may have for the baby. Increasingly, research is suggesting these breast milk sugars (human milk oligosaccharides) may protect against infections in the newborn, such as rotavirus and Group B streptococcus, as well as boosting a child’s “friendly” gut bacteria.”

He added the presence of these sugars allows “friendly” bacteria to flourish and out-compete any harmful bacteria that may be in the youngster’s gut, such as Group B streptococcus.

The sugars are also thought to act as decoys, and fool the bacteria into thinking the sugar is a type of human cell that can be invaded. The bacteria latch onto the sugar and is then excreted by the body. This may help protect the baby from infection until their own immune system is more mature to fight off the “bad bugs” at around six months of age.

The team hope their findings might lead to new treatments to protect mothers and babies from infections. The researchers raise the possibility of giving specific breast milk sugar supplements to pregnant and breast-feeding women who do not carry the active Lewis gene. This may help prevent harmful bacteria getting into the baby’s gut at birth and in the first weeks of life.

Some companies are already exploring adding such sugars to formula milk, but Dr Andreas cautioned it would be difficult to replicate the mix of sugars found in breast milk: “These experimental formulas only contain a couple of these compounds, whereas human breast milk contains dozens of different types. Furthermore, the quantity of sugars produced by the mother changes as the baby ages so that a newborn baby will receive a higher amount of sugars in the breast milk compared to a six-month-old.”

Dr Andreas, who is a post-doctoral fellow at the Centre for International Child Health at Imperial, also suggested that testing new mothers’ blood for the Lewis gene may be beneficial: “If we know whether a mother is colonised with Group B streptococcus and know if she carries an active copy of the Lewis gene, it may give us an indication of how likely she is to pass the bacteria on to her baby, and more personalised preventive measures could be applied.”

The work was supported by the Medical Research Council at the MRC Unit The Gambia, the Wellcome Trust, and the Thrasher Research Fund.

Source

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Posted in Nutrition is Medicine, Pregnancy: Breastfeeding | Leave a comment

Should physiotherapy be the first point of contact in general practice?

Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2016 Sep;17(5):489-502. doi: 10.1017/S1463423616000189. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

Physiotherapy as a first point of contact in general practice: a solution to a growing problem?

Goodwin RW1, Hendrick PA2.

Author information

1Musculoskeletal Clinics Team,Nottingham City Care,Nottingham,UK.
2School of Health Sciences,University of Nottingham,Nottingham,UK.

Abstract

Aim To evaluate the clinical effectiveness, patient satisfaction and economic efficacy of a physiotherapy service providing musculoskeletal care, as an alternative to GP care.

BACKGROUND:

There is a growing demand on general practice resources. A novel ‘1st Line Physiotherapy Service’ was evaluated in two GP practices (inner city practice, university practice). Physiotherapy, as a first point of contact, was provided as an alternative to GP care for patients with musculoskeletal complaints. Participants A convenience cohort sample of over 500 patients with a musculoskeletal complaint was assessed within the physiotherapy service. For the economic evaluation a cohort of 100 GP patients was retrospectivelyreviewed.

METHOD:

Clinical outcome measures were collected at assessment, one and six months following assessment. Patient satisfaction was collected at assessment. An economic evaluation was undertaken on the physiotherapy cohort of patients and compared to a retrospective cohort of patients (n=100) seen by a GP. This evaluation considered only the health care perspective (primary and secondary care). Societal issues such as absence from employment were not considered.

RESULTS:

There were no adverse events associated with the physiotherapy service. Patients reported high levels of satisfaction with the physiotherapy service. Patients managed within the 1st Line Physiotherapy Service demonstrated clinical improvements (EQ-5D-5L, Global Rating of Change) at the six-month point. There was a statistically significant difference in favour of the physiotherapy groups using a non-parametric bootstrap test; inner city practice, mean difference in costs=£538.01 (P =0.006; 95% CI; £865.678, £226.98), university practice mean difference in costs=£295.83 (P=0.044; 95% CI; £585.16, £83.69).

CONCLUSION:

The limitations of this pragmatic service evaluation are acknowledged. Nevertheless, the physiotherapy service appears to provide a safe and efficacious service. The service is well received by patients. There appear to be potential financial implications to the health economy. Physiotherapists, as a first point of contact for patients with musculoskeletal-related complaints, could contribute to the current challenges faced in primary care.

Source

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Diabetes Drug News: SGLT2 Inhibitors: Benefit/Risk Balance

Curr Diab Rep. 2016 Oct;16(10):92. doi: 10.1007/s11892-016-0789-4.

SGLT2 Inhibitors: Benefit/Risk Balance.

Scheen AJ1,2,3.

Author information

1Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Medicines (CIRM), University of Liège, Liège, Belgium. andre.scheen@chu.ulg.ac.be.

2Division of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Disorders, Department of Medicine, CHU Liège, Liège, Belgium. andre.scheen@chu.ulg.ac.be.

3Department of Medicine, CHU Sart Tilman (B35), B-4000, Liege 1, Belgium. andre.scheen@chu.ulg.ac.be.

Abstract

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycemia by increasing urinary glucose excretion.

They have been evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet/exercise, metformin, dual oral therapy or insulin.

Three agents are available in Europe and the USA (canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin) and others are commercialized in Japan or in clinical development. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glycated hemoglobin, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia. They exert favorable effects beyond glucose control with consistent body weight, blood pressure, and serum uric acid reductions.

Empagliflozin showed remarkable reductions in cardiovascular/all-cause mortality and in hospitalization for heart failure in patients with previous cardiovascular disease. Positive renal outcomes were also shown with empagliflozin.

Mostly reported adverse events are genital mycotic infections, while urinary tract infections and events linked to volume depletion are rather rare.

Concern about a risk of ketoacidosis and bone fractures has been recently raised, which deserves caution and further evaluation.

Source

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Coffee drinking habits can be genetic

Researchers have identified a gene that appears to curb coffee consumption.

People with a DNA variation in a gene called PDSS2 tend to drink fewer cups of coffee, the study found.

Experts say the findings suggest that the gene reduce the ability of cells to breakdown caffeine, causing it to stay in the body for longer.

This means that a person would not need to consume as much coffee to get the same caffeine hit, the team says.

The findings add to previous studies that have identified genes linked to coffee habits and shed new light on the biological mechanisms of caffeine metabolism.

Researchers looked at genetic information from 370 people living in a small village in south Italy and 843 people from six villages in north-east Italy.

Each of the study participants was asked to complete a survey that included a question about how many cups of coffee they drank each day.

The team found that people with the DNA variation in PDSS2 tended to consume fewer cups of coffee than people without the variation. The effect was equivalent to around one fewer cup of coffee per day on average.

The researchers replicated the study in a group of 1731 people from the Netherlands. The result was similar but the effect of the gene on the number of cups of coffee consumed was slightly lower.

This could be because of the different styles of coffee that are drunk in the two countries, the researchers say. In Italy, people tend to drink smaller cups such as espresso whereas in the Netherlands the preference is towards larger cups that contain more caffeine overall.

The study was conducted at the Universities of Edinburgh and Trieste, the Burlo Garofolo Pediatric Institute in Italy, the Erasmus Medical Center and PolyOmica, a data analysis company based in Groningen, the Netherlands.

Researchers from the Italian coffee company Illy also participated in the project though the company did not offer financial support. The study is published in the journal Scientific Reports.

Dr Nicola Pirastu, a Chancellor’s Fellow at the University of Edinburgh’s Usher Institute, said: “The results of our study add to existing research suggesting that our drive to drink coffee may be embedded in our genes. We need to do larger studies to confirm the discovery and also to clarify the biological link between PDSS2 and coffee consumption.”

Source

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Habitual coffee consumption and risk of cognitive decline, dementia

Nutrition. 2015 Dec 31. pii: S0899-9007(15)00538-9. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2015.11.015. [Epub ahead of print] Habitual coffee consumption and risk of cognitive decline/dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Liu QP1, Wu YF1, Cheng HY2, Xia T3, Ding H4, Wang … Continue reading

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High Daily Coffee Consumption May Lower MS Risk

Newswise — Drinking a lot of coffee every day–more than 900 ml (30 fluid ounces) or around six cups–is linked to a reduced risk of multiple sclerosis (MS), finds research published online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. … Continue reading

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Coffee may reduce cirrhosis risk

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):562-74. doi: 10.1111/apt.13523. Epub 2016 Jan 25. Systematic review with meta-analysis: coffee consumption and the risk of cirrhosis. Kennedy OJ1, Roderick P1, Buchanan R1, Fallowfield JA2, Hayes PC2, Parkes J1. Author information 1Primary Care & Population … Continue reading

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Coffee Flour Offers a Potentially Healthier Way of Enjoying Java

Newswise — Two decades ago, Brandeis biophysicist Dan Perlman ’68 and nutritionist K.C. Hayes developed the “healthy fats” blend in the Smart Balance buttery spread. 

Perlman has now come up with a new invention – the parbaked coffee bean. According … Continue reading

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Coffee May Improve Athletic Endurance Performance

Newswise — Athens, Ga. – The caffeine in a morning cup of coffee could help improve athletic endurance, according to a new University of Georgia review study. Authored by Simon Higgins, a third-year doctoral student in kinesiology in the College … Continue reading

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Cutting Back on Lunch and Coffee Could Earn You Over $700,000

Looking for a good New Year’s resolution? How about spending less on coffee and lunch? American consumers spend an average of $2,746 on lunch a year according to a recent survey by Visa. The average American, Wells Fargo estimates, also … Continue reading

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Caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeine are not risk factors for hypertension in postmenopausal women

First published December 9, 2015, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.120147 Am J Clin Nutr ajcn120147 Coffee and caffeine consumption and the risk of hypertension in postmenopausal women1,2 Jinnie J Rhee3,*, FeiFei Qin4, Haley K Hedlin4, Tara I Chang3, Chloe E Bird6, Oleg Zaslavsky7, … Continue reading

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Coffee Compounds That Could Help Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Identified

Newswise — Much to coffee lovers’ delight, drinking three to four cups of coffee per day has been shown to decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Now, scientists report in ACS’ Journal of Natural Products that they have … Continue reading

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Boutique chocolates to match everyone’s favorite flavor, similar to wines, tea, and coffee

Washington, DC – November 20, 2015 – A team of Belgian researchers has shown that the yeasts used to ferment cocoa during chocolate production can modify the aroma of the resulting chocolate. “This makes it possible to create a whole … Continue reading

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5 cups of coffee a day lowers heart disease, diabetes, neurological risk and suicides: new Harvard School of Public Health study

Five cups of coffee per day are less likely to die from heart disease, neurological disease, type 2 diabetes, or suicide, a new study suggests. “The main takeaway is that regular consumption of coffee can be incorporated into a healthy … Continue reading

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5 ways to reduce waste at the coffee shop

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Sweet News for Soda and Coffee Drinkers, Stevia Less Bitter Than Before

Newswise — ITHACA, N.Y. – Good news for consumers with a sweet tooth. Cornell food scientists have reduced the sweetener stevia’s bitter aftertaste by physical – rather than chemical – means, as noted in the Volume 197, Part A issue … Continue reading

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Some commercial coffees contain high levels of mycotoxins

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Chemicals From Roasting Coffee May Be Cramping Lungs

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Coffee linked with increased cardiovascular risk in young adults with mild hypertension

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Demand for coffee can create ecological, economic rift with poorer nations

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Colon cancer survivors may benefit from coffee: Dana Farber Cancer Institute

Newswise — BOSTON – Regular consumption of caffeinated coffee may help prevent the return of colon cancer after treatment and improve the chances of a cure, according to a new, large study from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute that reported this striking … Continue reading

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Coffee Consumption Habits Impact the Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment

Bari, Italy, July 28, 2015 — A new study by researchers at the University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy, Geriatric Unit & Laboratory of Gerontology and Geriatrics, IRCCS “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza”, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, Italy, and Istituto … Continue reading

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Coffee drinking may lower inflammation, reduce diabetes risk

(Reuters Health) – Coffee drinkers in a long-term study were about half as likely to develop type 2 diabetes as those who didn’t drink coffee, and researchers think an inflammation-lowering effect of the beverage might be the key. “Extensive research … Continue reading

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Coffee not associated with lifestyle diseases: University of Copenhagen: The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

Danish researchers are the first in the world to have used our genes to investigate the impact of coffee on the body. The new study shows that coffee neither increases nor decreases the risk of lifestyle diseases. We love coffee … Continue reading

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Kale and Coffee: A Renegade’s Guide to Health, Happiness, and Longevity

“Four years ago, when I was something of a YouTube health celebrity, I was on top of the world [and] . . . the diet pyramid. I ate the cleanest, most nutritious diet on the planet (or so I thought). … Continue reading

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Single-cup coffee machines packed with bacteria: report

There’s some bad news for coffee lovers brewing their morning joe with a single serve coffee maker. According to a swab test conducted by KDKA-TV in Pittsburgh, over 4 million colonies of harmful bacteria and mold was founding lurking in … Continue reading

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Antioxidant effects of coffee by-products 500 times greater than vitamin C, UGR research team concludes

The coffee industry plays a major role in the global economy. It also has a significant impact on the environment, producing more than 2 billion tonnes of coffee by-products annually. Coffee silverskin (the epidermis of the coffee bean) is usually … Continue reading

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Whirlpool Recalls Microwaves Due to Fire Hazard

Name of product: Whirlpool brand microwave hood combinations

Hazard:

Internal arcing during use can ignite an internal plastic component, posing a fire hazard.

Consumer Contact: Whirlpool Corporation at 800-990-6254 from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. ET Monday through Friday, or online at http://repair.whirlpoolcorp.com. Consumers can also visit www.whirlpool.com and click on “Product Recall” for more information.

Report an Incident Involving this Product

Recall Details

Units

About 15,200

Description

This recall involves Whirlpool brand microwave hood combinations. The microwave ovens were sold in stainless steel, black and white. Model numbers and serial numbers are located on the inside of the unit, above the oven cavity on the left hand side. The following model and serial numbers are included in the recall:

 

Model Numbers Serial Numbers
WMH53520CS TR33500000 to TR34899999 
WMH53520CW  TR33500000 to TR34899999 
WMH53520CB  TR33500000 to TR34899999
WMH53520CE TR33500000 to TR34899999
WMH53520CH TR33500000 to TR34899999
WMH73521CS TR33500000 to TR34899999
WMH73521CW TR33500000 to TR34899999
WMH73521CB TR33500000 to TR34899999
WMH73521CE TR33500000 to TR34899999
WMH73521CH TR33500000 to TR34899999

 

A complete list of model and serial numbers included in this recall is posted on the firm’s website at http://repair.whirlpoolcorp.com.

Incidents/Injuries

Whirlpool has received five reports of incidents, including one home fire, two fires involving the surrounding cabinets, one report of smoke, and one report of a burning odor.

Remedy

Consumers should immediately stop using the recalled microwaves, unplug the units and contact Whirlpool for a free replacement product.

Sold at

Best Buy, HH Gregg, Lowes, Sears and other home improvement, home appliance and retail stores and by homebuilders nationwide from January 2014 through April 2016 for between $370 and $470.

Manufacturer(s)

Whirlpool Corporation, of Benton Harbor, Mich.

Manufactured in

China

Source

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New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2016 Sep;98:144-58. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2016.01.016. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance.

Close GL1, Hamilton DL2, Philp A3, Burke LM4, Morton JP5.

Author information

1Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Science (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Tom Reilly Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, United Kingdom. Electronic address: g.l.close@ljmu.ac.uk.

2Health and Exercise Sciences Research Group, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.

3School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

4Sports Nutrition, Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Mary Mackillop Institute for Health Research, Melbourne, Australia.

5Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Science (RISES), Liverpool John Moores University, Tom Reilly Building, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e.g. caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates) can all promote performance in the correct exercise setting. In relation to exercise training, however, it is now thought that strategic periods of reduced carbohydrate and elevated dietary protein intake may enhance training adaptations whereas high carbohydrate availability and antioxidant supplementation may actually attenuate training adaptation. Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin D may play a regulatory role in muscle regeneration and subsequent hypertrophy following damaging forms of exercise. Finally, novel compounds (albeit largely examined in rodent models) such as epicatechins, nicotinamide riboside, resveratrol, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, phosphatidic acid and ursolic acid may also promote or attenuate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and strength training. When taken together, it is clear that sports nutrition is very much at the heart of the Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius (faster, higher, stronger).

Source

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Intake of Protein Plus Carbohydrate during the First Two Hours after Exhaustive Cycling Improves Performance the following Day

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Coffee May Improve Athletic Endurance Performance

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Standing cable training not superior to seated machine training in improving physical performance in older adult

Exp Gerontol. 2016 Sep;82:131-8. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2016.06.012. Epub 2016 Jun 25.

Functional strength training: Seated machine vs standing cable training to improve physical function in elderly

Balachandran A1, Martins MM1, De Faveri FG1, Alan O1, Cetinkaya F1, Signorile JF2.

Author information

1University of Miami, Laboratory of Neuromuscular Research and Active Aging, Department of Kinesiology and Sports Sciences, Coral Gables, FL, United States.

2University of Miami, Laboratory of Neuromuscular Research and Active Aging, Department of Kinesiology and Sports Sciences, Coral Gables, FL, United States; Miller School of Medicine, Center on Aging, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States. Electronic address: jsignorile@miami.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The majority of the strength training studies in older adults have incorporated fixed-form exercises using seated resistance training machines. In light of the modest improvements in physical function shown in these studies, functional or task-specific exercises, involving movement patterns that mimic daily activities, have been studied. Free-form exercises, using free-weights or cable, is another form of functional strength training. Currently, no intervention studies exist comparing free-form exercises, using cable machines, and fixed-form exercises, using seated machines in older adults.

METHODS:

A total of 29 independently-living older adults, 65years or older, were randomized into two groups, seated machine (SM, n=10) and standing cable (SC, n=12). After 12weeks of training twice per week, groups were compared. The primary outcome was the Physical Performance Battery (PPB), a measure of physical function. Secondary outcomes were lower and upper body strength and power, activities of daily living evaluated by multiple tests including: Physical Performance Test (PPT), pan carry and gallon jug transfers, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and self-reported function using Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Outcome assessors were blinded to participants’ intervention assignments.

RESULTS:

The PPB (SC=0.23 points; SM=0.15 points) showed clinical and significant improvements, but there was no significant difference between the groups (g=0.2, 95% CI (-0.6, 1.0). For secondary outcomes, chair stand (g=0.7, 95% CI (0.2, 1.6), p=0.03) and pan carry (g=0.8, 95% CI (0.07, 1.07), p=0.04) favored SC, while chest press 1RM (g=0.2, 95% CI (0.06, 1.1), p=0.02) favored SM. There were no statistically significant group differences between PPB, gallon jug transfer, leg press 1RM, power, RPE or self-reported function.

CONCLUSIONS:

Standing cable training was not superior to seated machine training in improving physical performance in older adults. However, both training interventions were effective in improving function. The findings also suggest that exercise specificity should be considered when prescribing resistance exercises to improve physical function in older adults.

Source

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Posted in Nutrition, Nutrition is Medicine | Comments Off on Impact of nutrition on muscle mass, strength, and performance in older adults | Edit

Effect of resistance training on phase angle in older women

Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Aug 19. doi: 10.1111/sms.12745. [Epub ahead of print] Effect of resistance training on phase angle in older women: A randomized controlled trial. Souza MF1, Tomeleri CM1, Ribeiro AS1, Schoenfeld BJ2, Silva AM3, Sardinha LB3, … Continue reading

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Elderly fall risk may be mitigated by explosive strength training

Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008 Dec;18(6):773-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00732.x. Epub 2008 Jan 30. Explosive heavy-resistance training in old and very old adults: changes in rapid muscle force, strength and power. Caserotti P1, Aagaard P, Larsen JB, Puggaard L. Author information … Continue reading

Posted in Elder Care: Falls, Exercise: Benefits, Fitness: Strength Training | Leave a comment | Edit

The increase in surface EMG could be a misleading measure of neural adaptation during the early gains in strength

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014 Aug;114(8):1645-55. doi: 10.1007/s00421-014-2893-y. Epub 2014 May 1. The increase in surface EMG could be a misleading measure of neural adaptation during the early gains in strength. Arabadzhiev TI1, Dimitrov VG, Dimitrov GV. Author information 1Institute … Continue reading

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Strength training may be effective in improving academic performance

Newswise — As more and more studies indicate physical activity improves academic performance, a West Virginia University professor’s research is helping identify which types of exercise are effective. Research by James C. Hannon, assistant dean of the College of Physical … Continue reading

Posted in Exercise: Resistance Training, Fitness: Strength Training, Human Behavior: Learning | Leave a comment | Edit

Physical Declines Begin Earlier Than Expected Among U.S. Adults

Newswise — DURHAM and KANNAPOLIS, N.C. – Physical declines begin sooner in life than typically detected, often when people are still in their 50s, according to a Duke Health study that focused on a large group of U.S. adults across … Continue reading

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Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging

Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Jun;95(24):e3291. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging. Jiang C1, Ranganathan VK, Zhang J, Siemionow V, Yue GH. Author information 1aDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH bDepartment … Continue reading

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Tai chi reduces fall risk in older adults: American Geriatrics Society

Recently, researchers compared the effects of tai chi to leg strengthening exercises (a physical therapy called “lower extremity training,” or LET) in reducing falls. Falls are a leading cause of serious injuries in older adults and can lead to hospitalization, … Continue reading

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Knee buckling treatment may help prevent falls in older adults

Symptoms of knee instability in older adults may indicate an increased risk of falling and of experiencing the various physical and psychological effects that can result from falling, according to a study published in Arthritis Care & Research, a journal … Continue reading

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Effects of heavy-resistance strength and balance training on unilateral and bilateral leg strength performance in old adults

PLoS One. 2015 Feb 19;10(2):e0118535. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118535. eCollection 2015. Effects of heavy-resistance strength and balance training on unilateral and bilateral leg strength performance in old adults. Beurskens R1, Gollhofer A2, Muehlbauer T1, Cardinale M3, Granacher U1. Author information 1University of … Continue reading

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Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females

PLoS One. 2015 Dec 17;10(12):e0144828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144828. eCollection 2015. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females. Logan SL1, Spriet LL1. Author information 1Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, … Continue reading

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Low-weight, high-repetition exercise increases bone density up to 8 percent in adults

BALTIMORE – October 26, 2015 – A new research study published in The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness finds that low-weight, high-repetition resistance training increases bone mineral density in adults, challenging assumptions that heavy weight-training is required to … Continue reading

Posted in Exercise: Benefits, Exercise: Resistance Training, Fitness: Strength Training, Osteoporosis | 1 Comment | Edit

Frailty Differs Significantly by Region and by Race Among Older Americans

Newswise — A large-scale survey of older Americans living at home or in assisted living settings found that 15 percent are frail, a diminished state that makes people more vulnerable to falls, chronic disease and disability, while another 45 percent … Continue reading

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Coffee linked with increased cardiovascular risk in young adults with mild hypertension

London, UK – 29 Aug 2015: Coffee drinking is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (mainly heart attacks) in young adults (18-45) with mild hypertension, according to research presented at ESC Congress today by Dr Lucio Mos, a cardiologist … Continue reading

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Grip strength may tell whether you have diabetes, high blood pressure

Whether you grasp it right away or not, your grip strength may indicate whether or not you have undetected diabetes and high blood pressure, University of Florida researchers say. The findings appear online ahead of print in the American Journal … Continue reading

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Effects of blueberry supplementation on measures of functional mobility in older adults

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015 Jan 12:1-7. [Epub ahead of print] Effects of blueberry supplementation on measures of functional mobility in older adults. Schrager MA1, Hilton J, Gould R, Kelly VE. Author information 1Department of Integrative Health Science, Stetson University, … Continue reading

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Strength training trumps cardio in controlling belly fat: Harvard School of Public Health

Boston, MA — Healthy men who did twenty minutes of daily weight training had less of an increase in age-related abdominal fat compared with men who spent the same amount of time doing aerobic activities, according to a new study … Continue reading

Posted in Exercise: Aerobic, Exercise: Benefits, Exercise: Resistance Training, Fitness: Strength Training | 1 Comment | Edit

Hospital-Based Exercise Program Improves Quality of Life for Adults with Arthritis, Other Muscle and Joint Conditions

Newswise — It may seem counterintuitive, but exercise can be beneficial for people suffering from arthritis and other muscle and joint conditions. A new study at Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) finds that older adults experienced less pain, reduced stiffness … Continue reading

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Grip strength tied to quality, length of life in new study

Researchers from the Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit (MRC LEU), University of Southampton have shed new light on how grip strength changes across the lifespan. Previous work has shown that people with weaker grip strength in midlife and early … Continue reading

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A high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults

A high whey protein–, leucine-, and vitamin D–enriched supplement preserves muscle mass during intentional weight loss in obese older adults: a double-blind randomized controlled trial 1,2,3 Amely M Verreijen, Sjors Verlaan, Mariëlle F Engberink, Sophie Swinkels, Johan de Vogel-van den … Continue reading

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Extra-depth shoes may help alleviate foot pain for older people

(Reuters Health) – For adults over age 65 with disabling foot pain, being fitted for off-the-shelf extra-depth footwear reduced pain and improved function, according to a new study. This type of footwear is often marketed to people with diabetic foot … Continue reading

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All diets work when adhered to

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2016 Sep;45(3):581-604. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2016.04.009.

The Role of Macronutrient Content in the Diet for Weight Management.

Bray GA1, Siri-Tarino PW2.

Author information

1Atherosclerosis Research Program, Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Drive, Oakland, CA 94609, USA. Electronic address: bray@pbrc.edu.

2Atherosclerosis Research Program, Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Drive, Oakland, CA 94609, USA.

Abstract

Diets to treat obesity have been in existence since Hippocrates treated obesity some 2500 years ago. There are currently a wide variety of diets and a common misconception that a single magical diet can cure overweight and obesity. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses indicate that all diets work when adhered to and that initial weight loss can predict the amount of weight lost and maintained for up to 4 years. Individual preferences are thus key in selecting a diet. There are emerging data pinpointing genetic variability in the metabolic responses to variation in macronutrient intake.

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Dietitian-Observed Macronutrient Intakes of Young Skill and Team-Sport Athletes: Adequacy of Pre, During, and Post-Exercise Nutrition

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Glycemic load, depression linked in new study

Appetite. 2016 Aug 6. pii: S0195-6663(16)30322-1. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.08.008. [Epub ahead of print] Subjective mood and energy levels of healthy weight and overweight/obese healthy adults on high-and low-glycemic load experimental diets. Breymeyer KL1, Lampe JW2, McGregor BA3, Neuhouser ML4. Author information … Continue reading

Posted in Human Behavior: Stress, Mental Health: Depression, Stress Eating | Leave a comment | Edit

Protein intake linked to lower obesity: Am J Clin Nutr.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul 27. pii: ajcn133819. [Epub ahead of print] Diets higher in animal and plant protein are associated with lower adiposity and do not impair kidney function in US adults. Berryman CE1, Agarwal S2, Lieberman HR3, … Continue reading

Posted in Nephrology, Nutrition: Information: Confusion, Nutrition: Protein, Obesity | Leave a comment | Edit

Nutritional geometry: a new framework for how we should eat

Existing models for measuring health impacts of the human diet are limiting our capacity to solve obesity and its related health problems, claim two of the world’s leading nutritional scientists in their newest research. In the latest edition of Annual … Continue reading

Posted in Nutrition, Nutrition: Dietitians, Nutrition: Diets, Nutrition: Functional Foods, Nutrition: Gene Technology, Nutrition: Information, Nutrition: Information: Confusion, Nutrition: Innovation, Nutrition: Labeling, Nutrition: Marketing, Nutrition: Micronutrients, Nutrition: Portfolio Diet, Nutrition: Supplements, Nutrition: Technology | Leave a comment | Edit

Overweight and Obese Type 2 Patients Show Significant Improvements with Structured Nutrition Therapy According to New First of Kind Study

Newswise — Boston (June 20, 2016) – Researchers at Joslin Diabetes Center have announced the results of a study that may change how nutrition therapy is delivered to overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. The “Nutrition Pathway Study” … Continue reading

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The effect of a whey protein supplement dose on satiety and food intake in resistance training athletes

Appetite. 2015 Sep;92:178-84. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.05.007. Epub 2015 May 12. The effect of a whey protein supplement dose on satiety and food intake in resistance training athletes. MacKenzie-Shalders KL1, Byrne NM2, Slater GJ3, King NA4. Author information 1Institute of Health and … Continue reading

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The health impact of nighttime eating: old and new perspectives

Nutrients. 2015 Apr 9;7(4):2648-62. doi: 10.3390/nu7042648. The health impact of nighttime eating: old and new perspectives. Kinsey AW1, Ormsbee MJ2,3. Author information 1Institute of Sports Sciences & Medicine, Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL … Continue reading

Posted in Food Addiction, Nutrition is Medicine, Nutrition: Appetite, Nutrition: Binge Eating, Nutrition: Calorie Restriction, Nutrition: Comfort Food, Nutrition: Dietitians, Nutrition: Diets, Nutrition: Eating Disorders, Nutrition: Glycemic Load, Nutrition: Habits, Nutrition: Junk Food | Comments Off on The health impact of nighttime eating: old and new perspectives | Edit

The impact of low-protein high-carbohydrate diets on aging and lifespan

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015 Dec 30. [Epub ahead of print] The impact of low-protein high-carbohydrate diets on aging and lifespan. Le Couteur DG1,2, Solon-Biet S3,4, Cogger VC3,4, Mitchell SJ5, Senior A3,6, de Cabo R6, Raubenheimer D3,7,8, Simpson SJ9,10. Author … Continue reading

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Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity

Nutrients. 2015 Nov 20;7(11):9662-9671. Antidepressant Use is Associated with Increased Energy Intake and Similar Levels of Physical Activity. Jensen-Otsu E1, Austin GL2. Author information 1Division of Gastroenterology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ejensenotsu@medicine.washington.edu. 2Division … Continue reading

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Surprisingly widespread confusion about female athlete nutrition guidelines

Nutr Hosp. 2015 Nov 1;32(n05):1936-1948. [ENERGY AND MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE IN FEMALE ATHLETES]. [Article in Spanish] Bernad Asencio L1, Reig García-Galbis M1. Author information 1Departamento de Enfermería, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Alicante, España.. manuel.reig@ua.es. Abstract in English, … Continue reading

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Ready-to-eat cereal may help kids with weight control

Nutr Hosp. 2015 Nov 1;32(n05):2301-2308. [CONSUMPTION OF READY-TO-EAT CEREAL IS INVERSELY ASSOCIATED WITH BODY MASS INDEX IN 6-13 YEARS OLD CHILEAN SCHOOLCHILDREN]. [Article in Spanish] Castillo Valenzuela O1, Liberona Zúñiga J2, Dominguez de Landa A3, Thielecke F4, Mondragón M M5, … Continue reading

Posted in Nutrition is Medicine, Nutrition: Food: Cereal, Obesity | Comments Off on Ready-to-eat cereal may help kids with weight control | Edit

Prunes, aka dried plums, reduce colon cancer risk: Texas A&M AgriLife Research

COLLEGE STATION — Researchers from Texas A&M University and the University of North Carolina have shown a diet containing dried plums can positively affect microbiota, also referred to as gut bacteria, throughout the colon, helping reduce the risk of colon … Continue reading

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High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages linked to overall poor diet

New research presented at this year’s annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) in Stockholm shows that high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, which has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes, is part … Continue reading

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Breakfast skippers may need encouragement to consume fruit and whole grains

Within-person comparison of eating behaviors, time of eating, and dietary intake on days with and without breakfast: NHANES 2005–2010 1,2,3 First published July 15, 2015, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.110262 Am J Clin Nutr September 2015 vol. 102 no. 3 661-670 Ashima K … Continue reading

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A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: case study

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 May 1;12:20. doi: 10.1186/s12970-015-0083-x. eCollection 2015. A nutrition and conditioning intervention for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: case study. Robinson SL1, Lambeth-Mansell A2, Gillibrand G3, Smith-Ryan A4, Bannock L1. Author information 1Guru Performance LTD, 58 … Continue reading

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Nutrition Targeting by Food Timing

Nutrition Targeting by Food Timing: Time-Related Dietary Approaches to Combat Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome 1,2,3,4; Sigal Sofer5,6; Aliza H Stark5; and Zecharia Madar5,*; doi: 10.3945/an.114.007518 Adv Nutr March 2015 Adv Nutr vol. 6: 214-223, 2015 Author Affiliations: 5Robert H Smith … Continue reading

Posted in Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity | 2 Comments | Edit

Brain Activity Can Predict Increased Fat Intake Following Sleep Deprivation

PHILADELPHIA — Experts have warned for years that insufficient sleep can lead to weight gain. A new Penn Medicine study found that not only do we consume more food following a night of total sleep deprivation, but we also we … Continue reading

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New School Meal Requirements: More Harm Than Good?

Newswise — New federal regulations requiring school meals to contain more whole grains, less saturated fat and more fruits and vegetables, while perhaps improving some aspects of the food being served at schools across the United States, may also be … Continue reading

Posted in Public Health, School Lunches | 1 Comment | Edit

After the Mediterranean diet, now try a Nordic diet

The new Nordic diet, specially created to bridge the sometimes conflicting interests of health, gastronomy and sustainability, offers the potential to help weight control and reduce blood pressure, according to a study reporting today at a Symposium on cardiovascular prevention. … Continue reading

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Comparison of named diet programs finds little difference in weight-loss outcomes

In an analysis of data from nearly 50 trials including about 7,300 individuals, significant weight loss was observed with any low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet, with weight loss differences between diet programs small, findings that support the practice of recommending any … Continue reading

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‘Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater energy deficit’: Journal of Applied Physiology

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2014 Aug 14. pii: jap.00570.2014. [Epub ahead of print] Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment. Schubert MM1, Hall S2, Leveritt M3, Grant G2, Sabapathy S2, Desbrow B2. … Continue reading

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Hydration during exercise: new advice from a new study

J Athl Train. 2014 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print] Drinking to Thirst Versus Drinking Ad Libitum During Road Cycling. Armstrong LE1, Johnson EC, Kunces LJ, Ganio MS, Judelson DA, Kupchak BR, Vingren JL, Munoz CX, Huggins RA, Hydren JR, … Continue reading

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First evidence that shorter nighttime sleep duration has a linear association with higher energy intake early in life

International Journal of Obesity (2014) 38, 926–929; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.50; published online 29 April 2014 Sleep and energy intake in early childhood A Fisher1, L McDonald1, C H M van Jaarsveld1,2, C Llewellyn1, A Fildes1, S Schrempft1 and J Wardle1 1Health Behaviour … Continue reading

Posted in Obesity, Pediatric Health, Pediatric Health: Infants, Pediatric Health: Sleep, Sleep, World Health: Obesity | Comments Off on First evidence that shorter nighttime sleep duration has a linear association with higher energy intake early in life | Edit

High-protein weight loss diets can work

Scientists have shown that instead of counting calories for weight loss, we would do better to boost the protein content of our diet. Nutritional values of foods are typically given in kilojoules or kilocalories, standard units of energy. However, new … Continue reading

Posted in Nutrition: Diets, Nutrition: Protein | 1 Comment | Edit

Two large meals better than 6 small ones with same calories for controlling weight, blood sugar in T2D

Research published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) suggests that two large meals (breakfast and lunch), rather than six small meals with the same total calories, are better for controlling weight and blood … Continue reading

Posted in Nutrition is Medicine | 1 Comment | Edit
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Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with Down syndrome-prevalence, determinants, consequences, and interventions: A literature review.

Res Dev Disabil. 2016 Oct;57:181-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2016.06.018. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with Down syndrome-prevalence, determinants, consequences, and interventions: A literature review.

Bertapelli F1, Pitetti K2, Agiovlasitis S3, Guerra-Junior G4.

Author information

1CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasília, DF 70040-020, Brazil; Growth and Development Lab, Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-887, Brazil. Electronic address: fbertapelli@gmail.com.

2Department of Physical Therapy, College of Health Professions, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260-0043, USA. Electronic address: ken.pitetti@wichita.edu.

3Department of Kinesiology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Starkville, MS 39762, USA. Electronic address: sagiovlasitis@colled.msstate.edu.

4Growth and Development Lab, Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-887, Brazil; Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-970, Brazil. Electronic address: gilguer@fcm.unicamp.br.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Children with Down syndrome (DS) are more likely to be overweight or obese than the general population of youth without DS.
AIMS:

To review the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their determinants in youth with DS. The health consequences and the effectiveness of interventions were also examined.

METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

A search using MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, and COCHRANE was conducted. From a total of 4280 studies, we included 45 original research articles published between 1988 and 2015.

OUTCOMES AND RESULTS:

The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity varied between studies from 23% to 70%. Youth with DS had higher rates of overweight and obesity than youths without DS. Likely determinants of obesity included increased leptin, decreased resting energy expenditure, comorbidities, unfavorable diet, and low physical activity levels. Obesity was positively associated with obstructive sleep apnea, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and gait disorder. Interventions for obesity prevention and control were primarily based on exercise-based programs, and were insufficient to achieve weight or fat loss.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

Population-based research is needed to identify risk factors and support multi-factorial strategies for reducing overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with DS.

Source

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Down’s study: aerobic training improved low-grade inflammation in obese women

J Intellect Disabil Res. 2013 Jun 7. doi: 10.1111/jir.12056. [Epub ahead of print]; Aerobic training improved low-grade inflammation in obese women with intellectual disability. Ordonez FJ, Rosety MA, Camacho A, Rosety I, Diaz AJ, Fornieles G, Garcia N, Rosety-Rodriguez M.; … Continue reading

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Adult Attachment, Stress, and Romantic Relationships

Curr Opin Psychol. 2017 Feb;13:19-24.

Adult Attachment, Stress, and Romantic Relationships.

Simpson JA1, Steven Rholes W2.

Author information

1University of Minnesota.

2Texas A&M University.

Abstract

In this article, we discuss theory and research on how individuals who have insecure adult romantic attachment orientations typically think, feel, and behave when they or their romantic partners encounter certain types of chronic or acute stress. We first review basic principles of attachment theory and then discuss how two forms of attachment insecurity-anxiety and avoidance-are associated with unique patterns of emotion regulation in response to certain types of threatening/distressing situations. We then discuss a diathesis-stress process model that has guided our research, highlighting studies that provide support for certain pathways of the model.

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Withdrawal or expecting your lover to mind-read hurts relationships, but in different ways

When you have a conflict with your spouse or significant other, do you withdraw like a turtle into its shell? Or perhaps you expect your partner to be a mind reader about what ticks you off? Those are two of … Continue reading

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Commitment-phobic adults could have mom and dad to blame says new study

Adults avoiding relationships may be trying to meet childhood needs, say Tel Aviv University researcher Afraid to commit to a relationship? According to new research from Tel Aviv University, it could be just one more thing to blame on your … Continue reading

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How close relationships affect our health

It is not always best to forgive and forget in marriage, according to new research that looks at the costs of forgiveness. Sometimes expressing anger might be necessary to resolve a relationship problem – with the short-term discomfort of an … Continue reading

Posted in Human Behavior: Anger, Human Behavior: Conflict, Human Behavior: Cooperation, Human Behavior: Fairness, Human Behavior: Gender Differences, Human Behavior: Habits, Human Behavior: Happiness, Human Behavior: Negativity, Human Behavior: Optimism, Human Behavior: Relationships | Comments Off on How close relationships affect our health | Edit

How you benefit if your romantic partner recovers well from conflict

People searching for fulfilling and stable romantic relationships should look for a romantic partner who recovers from conflict well. Yes, it turns out that if your romantic partner recoups well after the two of you have a spat, you reap … Continue reading

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Aggressive women tend to have children with similarly aggressive men

People who are involved in a violent relationship may be more likely to have trouble forming an effective parenting team. This is according to new research published in the Journal of Family Issues, which showed couples who are aggressive towards … Continue reading

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Posted in Human Behavior: Relationships, Human Behavior: Stress | Leave a comment

Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

Circulation. 2016 Aug 22. pii: CIR.0000000000000439. [Epub ahead of print]

Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Vos MB, Kaar JL, Welsh JA, Van Horn LV, Feig DI, Anderson CA, Patel MJ, Cruz Munos J, Krebs NF, Xanthakos SA, Johnson RK; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; Council on Functional Genomics and Translational Biology; and Council on Hypertension.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity.

CONCLUSIONS:

Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children

Source

Energy drinks consumption by children and adolescents must be reduced by policy makers: report

UK policy makers must act against excessive energy drinks consumption by children and young people, argues a new report published by the Food Research Collaboration, an initiative of the Centre for Food Policy (City University London). The paper, written by … Continue reading

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6 Ways To Kick Added Sugar Out, According To A Sugar Scientist

The Food and Drug Administration’s new recommendation that Americans eat no more than 10 percent of calories from added sugar is a giant leap in the right direction, according to sugar scientist Laura Schmidt of the University of California, San … Continue reading

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Lowering Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake by Children Linked to More Favorable HDL-C Changes

Newswise — BOSTON (September 2, 2015, 2 PM) In the first study to investigate blood lipid levels in association with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of Boston area schoolchildren, researchers found there was … Continue reading

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High sugar consumption among children relates to poor family functioning, study finds: Queen Mary, University of London

The quality of general family functioning is a major determinant of healthy dietary habits – according to new research published in the Journal of Caries Research and led by Queen Mary University of London. The East London Family (ELF) Study … Continue reading

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U.S. Adult Consumption of Added Sugars Increased by More Than 30% Over Three Decades

Newswise — BOSTON, MA: As the United States Food and Drug Administration considers a new food label detailing the amount of added sugars in foods, new research shows this non-nutritive calorie source has crept into the American diet over the … Continue reading

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Kids’ BP, triglycerides driven up by added sugar in food

Added sugars in the diet are positively associated with diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in children 1,2,3 Kenneth P Kell, Michelle I Cardel, Michelle M Bohan Brown, and José R Fernández – Author Affiliations 1From the Department of Nutrition Sciences, … Continue reading

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Consumption of added sugars from liquid but not solid sources predicts impaired glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance among youth at risk of obesity

Consumption of Added Sugars from Liquid but Not Solid Sources Predicts Impaired Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance among Youth at Risk of Obesity 1,2,3 First published November 6, 2013, doi: 10.3945/jn.113.182519 J. Nutr. January 1, 2014 vol. 144 no. 1 … Continue reading

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FTC releases follow-up study detailing promotional activities, expenditures, and nutritional profiles of food marketed to children and adolescents

The Federal Trade Commission today announced the results of a comprehensive study of food and beverage industry marketing expenditures and activities directed to children and teens. The study, A Review of Food Marketing to Children and Adolescents: Follow-Up Report gauges … Continue reading

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4 Federal agencies form group to ask food industry to voluntarily try harder to market healthier food to children; seek public comment; report forthcoming

In an effort to combat childhood obesity – the most serious health crisis facing today’s youth – a working group of four federal agencies today released for public comment a set of proposed voluntary principles that can be used by … Continue reading

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How neuroinflammation contributes to neurodegeneration

Science. 2016 Aug 19;353(6301):777-83. doi: 10.1126/science.aag2590. How neuroinflammation contributes to neurodegeneration. Ransohoff RM1. Author information 1Biogen, 225 Binney Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal lobar dementia are … Continue reading

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Effect of resistance training on phase angle in older women

Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Aug 19. doi: 10.1111/sms.12745. [Epub ahead of print] Effect of resistance training on phase angle in older women: A randomized controlled trial. Souza MF1, Tomeleri CM1, Ribeiro AS1, Schoenfeld BJ2, Silva AM3, Sardinha LB3, … Continue reading

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Almost All Food and Beverage Products Marketed by Music Stars Are Unhealthy, According to New Study

Newswise — Recording artists are frequently the face of commercial products—and children and adolescents are frequently their target audience. Now, a new study by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center finds that the vast majority of the food and beverage … Continue reading

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Artificially sweetened beverages consumed in pregnancy linked to increased infant BMI

Daily consumption of artificially sweetened beverages by women during pregnancy may be associated with increased infant body mass index (BMI) and may be associated with an increased risk of being overweight in early childhood, according to an article published online … Continue reading

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Should sugary drinks carry warning labels?

A new study claims to show that parents will buy fewer sugary soft drinks for their children if a warning label advises against it, but the dire warning labels on cigarettes seem to have lost their touch. Do warning labels … Continue reading

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US Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020 Released

Over the past century, deficiencies of essential nutrients have dramatically decreased, many infectious diseases have been conquered, and the majority of the U.S. population can now anticipate a long and productive life. At the same time, rates of chronic diseases—many … Continue reading

Posted in Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, Nutrition is Medicine, Nutrition: Calorie Restriction, Nutrition: Dietitians, Nutrition: Diets, Nutrition: Glycemic Load, Nutrition: Gut, Nutrition: Habits, Nutrition: Information: Confusion, Nutrition: Satiety, Obesity | Comments Off on US Dietary Guidelines 2015-2020 Released | Edit

Experts: Dietary Guidelines for Americans Shouldn’t Place Limits on Total Fat Intake

Newswise — BOSTON (June 23, 2015, 11 am ET)─ In a Viewpoint published today in the Journal of the Medical Association (JAMA), researchers from the Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy at Tufts University and Boston Children’s Hospital call … Continue reading

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Sugar industry, US government worked on tooth-decay workarounds in the 1970s that protected the industry

A newly discovered cache of industry documents reveals that the sugar industry worked closely with the National Institutes of Health in the 1960s and ‘70s to develop a federal research program focused on approaches other than sugar reduction to prevent … Continue reading

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Healthy eating strategies not working, need revamp

Researchers are challenging conventional beliefs about the effectiveness of traditional strategies for encouraging healthy eating. The symposium, “Challenging Misconceptions About the Psychology of Food Choice,” includes four presentations that tackle issues such as the harmfulness of weight-stigma, encouraging healthy choices, … Continue reading

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Gluten-Free Diet Is Treatment, Not Trend, for Those with Celiac Disease

Newswise — WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. – Jan. 27, 2015 – You’d never suspect it from the proliferation of gluten-free items on supermarket shelves. Yet only one in approximately 133 people – that’s 0.75 percent of the population – has celiac disease, … Continue reading

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Sugar is making us sick

Is sugar making us sick? A team of scientists at the University of California in San Francisco believes so, and they’re doing something about it. They launched an initiative to bring information on food and drink and added sugar to … Continue reading

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New School Meal Requirements: More Harm Than Good?

Newswise — New federal regulations requiring school meals to contain more whole grains, less saturated fat and more fruits and vegetables, while perhaps improving some aspects of the food being served at schools across the United States, may also be … Continue reading

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School lunches offer better average nutrition than packed lunches: Virginia Tech study

PHILADELPHIA, PA, November 7, 2014 – Approximately 60% of the more than 50 million public elementary and secondary education students obtain a substantial portion of their daily calories from school lunches. The 2012-2013 National School Lunch Program (NSLP) nutritional standards … Continue reading

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4 bad effects of sugar on kids and 9 ways to help them cut back

Ice cream, birthday cake and cookies are typical treats in our kids’ diets, but did you know that 16 percent of children and teens’ daily calories come from added sugar? It’s no surprise that too much sugar can cause tooth … Continue reading

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Adolescent Brains Process Sugar Differently Than Adult Brains

SAN FRANCISCO, CA–(Marketwired – Jun 15, 2014) – With the increase in childhood obesity and the associated increase in type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents, there is growing interest in how children’s bodies process the foods they eat and … Continue reading

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Regular nut intake linked to low inflammation

(Reuters Health) – Eating a handful of nuts five times per week may reduce inflammation, a condition that contributes to heart disease, diabetes and many other chronic illnesses, say the authors of a recent U.S. study.

This inflammation-dampening effect might be the secret to the health benefits of nuts, the study team writes in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Past research has linked eating nuts to lower rates of heart disease and diabetes, but the exact reason was unknown, senior study author Dr. Ying Bao, an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston, told Reuters Health.

“We hypothesized that nuts may exert these health benefits by reducing inflammation,” Bao said by email.

Nuts may lower inflammation because they contain fiber, magnesium, antioxidants and other health-boosting ingredients, the researchers write.

To explore the connection between nuts and inflammation, the researchers analyzed data from two different long-term studies of health professionals, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS).

The participants filled out questionnaires every four years documenting what they ate between 1986 and 1990 in the NHS and between 1990 and 1994 in the HPFS. The 5,013 people included in the new analysis were free of heart disease and diabetes at the beginning of the study period.

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Walnuts maintain brain health as you age

J Nutr. 2014 Feb 5. [Epub ahead of print] Role of Walnuts in Maintaining Brain Health with Age. Poulose SM, Miller MG, Shukitt-Hale B. Author information USDA-Agricultural Research Services, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA. Abstract … Continue reading

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Red meat, biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism in women

Associations between red meat intake and biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism in women 1,2,3 First published November 27, 2013, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.075663 Am J Clin Nutr February 2014 ajcn.075663 Sylvia H Ley, Qi Sun, Walter C Willett, A Heather Eliassen, … Continue reading

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Zinc and inflammation: a new, positive link

COLUMBUS, Ohio – New research suggests that zinc helps control infections by gently tapping the brakes on the immune response in a way that prevents out-of-control inflammation that can be damaging and even deadly. Scientists determined in human cell culture … Continue reading

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Diets avoiding dry-cooked foods can protect against diabetes, say Mount Sinai researchers

Simple changes in how we cook could go a long way towards preventing diabetes, say researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. A new randomized controlled trial, published online July 29 in the journal Diabetologia, found that … Continue reading

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Should You Be Drinking A2 Milk?

I learned only quite recently about A2 milk, from two dietitians well steeped in the topic who visited my office (my thanks to them both for making the trip). I found the matter fascinating, and highly germane to all of … Continue reading

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Omega-6 in Stored Fat Tied to Longer Survival

Higher levels of the omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) linoleic acid stored in fat tissue was associated with a lower risk of death in a Swedish prospective cohort study which followed older men for 15 years. Linoleic acid stored in … Continue reading

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Gallstone disease may increase heart disease risk

DALLAS, Aug. 18, 2016 – A history of gallstone disease may increase your risk of coronary heart disease, according to new research in the American Heart Association’s journal Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology. Gallstone disease is one of the most … Continue reading

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Researchers Find Herpes Strain in the Nervous System

Newswise — There are a couple strains of herpes so common that researchers estimate 90% of the human population have them. These strains, human herpes 6 and human herpes 7, usually do not cause severe symptoms when people acquire them. … Continue reading

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Unhealthy diet during pregnancy could be linked to ADHD

New research led by scientists from King’s College London and the University of Bristol has found that a high-fat, high-sugar diet during pregnancy may be linked to symptoms of ADHD in children who show conduct problems early in life. Published … Continue reading

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High and Low Levels of ‘Good Cholesterol’ May Cause Premature Death

Newswise — Commonly touted as “good cholesterol” for helping to reduce risk of stroke and heart attack, both high and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol may increase a person’s risk of premature death, according to new research at … Continue reading

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Gene related to Down syndrome and miscarriage identified

GENETICISTS have identified an enzyme which regulates the production of sperm and egg cells in human reproduction. The discovery furthers our understanding of a process which can often go wrong, resulting in miscarriage or infants born with Down’s Syndrome, Edwards’s … Continue reading

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The Autoimmune Wellness Handbook: A DIY Guide to Living Well with Chronic Illness

The way autoimmune disease is viewed and treated is undergoing a major change as an estimated 50 million Americans (and growing) suffer from these conditions. For many patients, the key to true wellness is in holistic treatment, although they might … Continue reading

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Update: Foods that are bad for dogs

If you consider the family dog, well, family—and are apt to toss him a piece of your food now and then—proceed with caution. Some foods meant for human consumption can be dangerous, and even deadly, to your dog. How are … Continue reading

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Just Changing What You Eat Can Improve Health

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. – The key to eating for wellness is not necessarily what foods to eat, but rather how and when we eat them, says Suzanne Judd, Ph.D., associate professor in the University of Alabama at Birmingham’s Department of Biostatistics. … Continue reading

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Mice fed more fiber have less severe food allergies

The development of food allergies in mice can be linked to what their gut bacteria are being fed, reports a study published June 21 in Cell Reports. Rodents that received a diet with average calories, sugar, and fiber content from … Continue reading

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Fructose alters hundreds of brain genes, which can lead to a wide range of diseases: UCLA scientists report that diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids can reverse the damage

A range of diseases — from diabetes to cardiovascular disease, and from Alzheimer’s disease to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder — are linked to changes to genes in the brain. A new study by UCLA life scientists has found that hundreds … Continue reading

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Top 10 Foods With Health Benefits: Texas A&M University

Newswise — Open your fridge and what do you see? A way to fight cancer? A way to boost memory retention? Day in and day out, we put food in our bodies, but might be unaware of the benefits to … Continue reading

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For type 2 diabetes, high serum omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations linked to lower risk

A new study from the University of Eastern Finland shows that high serum omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations are linked to a significantly reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The findings were published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. … Continue reading

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Tree nut intake lowers total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ApoB, and triglycerides: Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston

First published November 11, 2015, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.110965 Am J Clin Nutr December 2015 vol. 102 no. 6 1347-1356 Effects of tree nuts on blood lipids, apolipoproteins, and blood pressure: systematic review, meta-analysis, and dose-response of 61 controlled intervention trials 1,2,3 … Continue reading

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One junk food snack triggers signals of metabolic disease: FASEB journal

We hate to ruin Thanksgiving, but a new report appearing in the Nov. 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal suggests that for some people, overindulgence at the dinner table or at snack time is enough to trigger signs of metabolic … Continue reading

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Restless legs syndrome linked to heart, kidney problems

Imagine trying to lie down and rest but feeling an uncontrollable urge to keep moving your legs. That, in a nutshell, is the ongoing ordeal facing people with restless legs syndrome. Considered a neurological, sleep, or movement disorder, RLS affects … Continue reading

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Colon cancer survivors may benefit from coffee: Dana Farber Cancer Institute

Newswise — BOSTON – Regular consumption of caffeinated coffee may help prevent the return of colon cancer after treatment and improve the chances of a cure, according to a new, large study from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute that reported this striking … Continue reading

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Eating oily fish may help kids avoid nasal allergies

(Reuters Health) – Children who eat certain types of fish may be less likely to develop nasal allergies, according to a study from Sweden. Researchers studied what children ate at age eight and then monitored whether they developed nasal inflammation … Continue reading

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10 Reasons Your Belly Fat Isn’t Going Away

The choices you make every day can supercharge your ability to burn belly fat. A little bit of belly fat is actually good for you: it protects your stomach, intestines, and other delicate organs. But too much fat is anything … Continue reading

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Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), an inflammatory response in the esophagus that makes it hard to swallow food

Newswise — COLUMBUS, Ohio – Its name is daunting. It’s the hottest topic among allergy experts. It’s showing up more and doctors don’t yet know why. Allergy specialists at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center are seeing more people … Continue reading

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Getting enough omega-3 may cut risk of diabetic retinopathy

(Reuters Health) – For adults with type 2 diabetes, following a Mediterranean diet including at least two servings of fatty fish per week may lower the risk of diabetic retinopathy, according to an observational study from Spain.

The researchers analyzed data on people participating in a larger randomized trial known as PREDIMED, which ran from 2003 to 2009 in Spain and tested a Mediterranean diet with added extra virgin olive oil or nuts against a usual comparison diet for preventing heart problems over time.

About 3,600 adults aged 55 to 80 who took part in PREDIMED had type 2 diabetes and the analysis focused on them.

Based on food frequency questionnaires, the researchers determined that three quarters of these participants had met target omega-3 fatty acid intake levels of 500 mg per day, which can be achieved by meeting American Heart Association guidelines of two weekly servings of fish, preferably oily fish like salmon.

Over about a six-year follow-up period, there were 69 new cases of sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. People who were meeting omega-3 fatty acid guidelines when the study began were 48 percent less likely to have this diagnosis during the study than others, according to the findings published in JAMA Ophthalmology, August 18.

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Cancer risk may be reduced via omega-3s, according to new study

DAVIS–Researchers at the University of California, Davis have discovered a key mechanism by which dietary omega-3 fatty acids (fish oils) could reduce the tumor growth and spread of cancer, a disease that kills some 580,000 Americans a year.   Dietary … Continue reading

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Regenerative bandage heals diabetic wounds faster

At some point in their lives, 15 percent of people with diabetes will develop a painful and hard-to-treat foot ulcer. Twenty-four percent of those affected will require a lower-leg amputation because of it. And, in some instances, what seems like … Continue reading

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By mid-century, more Antarctic snowfall may help offset sea-level rise: Columbia U

When Antarctica’s air temperature rises, moisture in the atmosphere increases. That should mean more snowfall on the frozen continent. So why hasn’t that trend become evident in Antarctica’s surface mass balance as climate models predict?

In a new study, scientists used historical records and climate simulations to examine that question. They found that the effect of rising temperatures on snowfall has so far been overshadowed by Antarctica’s large natural climate variability, which comes from random, chaotic variations in the polar weather. By mid-century, however, as temperatures continue to rise, the study shows how the effect of human-induced warming on Antarctica’s net snow accumulation should emerge above the noise.

The expectation of more snowfall is something of a silver lining as temperatures rise. Global warming is already increasing sea level through melting ice and thermal expansion. The increase in snowfall over Antarctica could help reduce the amount of global sea level rise by 51 to 79 millimeters, or about 2 to 3 inches, by the year 2100, according to the study. That would be a small but important benefit: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates global sea level rise will be at least 10 times that by 2100 under the same high-emissions scenario used in the new study.

“Increased snowfall over Antarctica is the sole process connected to global warming that is thought to have a significant mitigating effect on global sea level rise,” said lead author Michael Previdi, a professor at Columbia University’s Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. “While the magnitude of this effect is uncertain, it is likely that the balance of different processes determining Antarctica’s net contribution to global sea level rise will be decidedly different in the future than it has been in the recent past.”

On a continental scale, surface mass balance is the difference between the amount of snowfall that accumulates and the amount of snow lost to sublimation. It affects global sea level because the amount of water on earth is essentially constant, so when more water is stored as snow or ice on land, less water is available to contribute to rising seas.

For the study, published this week in the journal Environmental Research Letters, Previdi and co-author Lorenzo Polvani of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory evaluated surface mass balance simulations from 35 coupled atmosphere-ocean climate models, which simulate the physical forces that affect Antarctica.

The models allow scientists to quantify both the human influence on surface mass balance and the influence of natural variability. The scientists found that from 1961 to 2005, global warming increased Antarctica’s surface mass balance by 124 billion tons per year, smaller in magnitude than natural year-to-year variability, which was found to be plus or minus 126 billion tons per year.

When the scientists looked at all 35 models, 46 percent of the individual simulations showed a statistically significant trend in surface mass balance from 1961 to 2005, the year that most of the models’ historical simulations end. The likelihood of seeing a statistically significant trend in surface mass balance rises as the models forecast ahead in time. After 2015, the models cross a threshold where it becomes “likely,” with a 66 percent chance, that evidence of anthropogenic climate change will emerge in Antarctica’s surface mass balance. By 2040, it becomes “very likely,” with a higher than 90 percent chance.

Previdi and Polvani repeated their analysis with different emissions scenarios and also considered surface mass balance trends starting in 1979, at the dawn of the satellite era. The analyses showed similar results, with the global warming signal “very likely” to emerge by mid-century.

“The apparent discrepancy between models and observations can be easily reconciled by considering the large surface mass balance variations generated naturally within the Antarctic climate system,” they write.

Previous studies also found no significant change in the total Antarctic surface mass balance in recent decades, though a 2013 ice core study found a 10 percent increase in surface mass balance in coastal regions since the 1960s. All temperature records, meanwhile, indicate that Antarctica warmed from 1961 to 2005. Ice cores also show a strong relationship between the continent’s surface mass balance and temperature changes through history, including the end of the last ice age when temperatures rose dramatically.

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The paper, “Anthropogenic Impact on Antarctic Surface Mass Balance, Currently Masked by Natural Variability, to Emerge by Mid-Century,” is available from the author.

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Burning remaining fossil fuel could cause 60-meter sea level rise

Washington, DC–New work from an international team including Carnegie’s Ken Caldeira demonstrates that the planet’s remaining fossil fuel resources would be sufficient to melt nearly all of Antarctica if burned, leading to a 50- or 60-meter (160 to 200 foot) … Continue reading

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Sudden onset of ice loss in Antarctica detected

A group of scientists, led by a team from the University of Bristol, has observed a sudden increase of ice loss in a previously stable region of Antarctica. The research is published today in Science. Using measurements of the elevation … Continue reading

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Antarctic sea-level rising faster than global rate

A new study has found that fresh water from melting glaciers has caused the sea-level around the coast of Antarctica to rise by 2cm more than the global average of 6cm, since 1992. A research team, which included the University … Continue reading

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Mislabeled seafood can contain unexpectedly high levels of mercury

New measurements from fish purchased at retail seafood counters in 10 different states show the extent to which mislabeling can expose consumers to unexpectedly high levels of mercury, a harmful pollutant. Fishery stock “substitutions”—which falsely present a fish of the … Continue reading

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Greenland ice sheet collapse, sea level rise 400,000 years ago: a new link

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new study suggests that a warming period more than 400,000 years ago pushed the Greenland ice sheet past its stability threshold, resulting in a nearly complete deglaciation of southern Greenland and raising global sea levels some … Continue reading

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West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse is underway: NSF-funded research

“…an imaginative book that combines a geophysical description of Antarctica with a history of attempts to explore and assimilate intellectually this remote and strange continent….” National Science Foundation- (NSF) funded researchers at the University of Washington have concluded that Antarctica’s … Continue reading

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Antarctica glacier may be melting faster: University of Bristol researchers

An international team of researchers has shown that Pine Island Glacier (PIG), the primary contributor to sea-level rise from Antarctica, has entered a period of self-sustained retreat and its discharge to the ocean will likely increase in comparison to observations … Continue reading

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New data: Each degree of global warming might ultimately raise global sea levels by more than 2 meters

RELATED: High Tide on Main Street:Rising Sea Level and the Coming Coastal Crisis While thermal expansion of the ocean and melting mountain glaciers are the most important factors causing sea-level change today, the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will be … Continue reading

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Trees in Antarctica. 20,000,000 years ago.

“Warm” and “Antarctica” are not commonly used in the same sentence; however, for scientists, “warm” is a relative term. A team of researchers has discovered that, contrary to previous thinking, the Antarctic continent has experienced periods of warmth since the … Continue reading

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NOAA, NASA: Significant ozone hole remains over Antarctica

The Antarctic ozone hole, which yawns wide every Southern Hemisphere spring, reached its annual peak on September 12, stretching 10.05 million square miles, the ninth largest on record. Above the South Pole, the ozone hole reached its deepest point of … Continue reading

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Volcano in 1982 sparked major global climate shift

Planet Earth experienced a global climate shift in the late 1980s on an unprecedented scale, fuelled by anthropogenic warming and a volcanic eruption, according to new research published this week. Scientists say that a major step change, or ‘regime shift’, … Continue reading

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Warmest October in the Satellite Temperature Record

Newswise — Global Temperature Report: October 2015 Warmest October in the satellite temperature record Global climate trend since Nov. 16, 1978: +0.11 C per decade October temperatures (preliminary) Global composite temp.: +0.43 C (about 0.77 degrees Fahrenheit) above 30-year average … Continue reading

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NASA study: Mass gains of Antarctic Ice Sheet greater than losses

A new NASA study says that an increase in Antarctic snow accumulation that began 10,000 years ago is currently adding enough ice to the continent to outweigh the increased losses from its thinning glaciers. The research challenges the conclusions of … Continue reading

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Common coolants contribute to ozone depletion: NASA

A class of widely used chemical coolants known as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) contributes to ozone depletion by a small but measurable amount, countering a decades-old assumption, according to a new NASA study. The paper, published Oct. 22 in Geophysical Research Letters, … Continue reading

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Earth Has 3 Trillion Trees, Seven (7) Times More Than Previously Thought

There are roughly 3 trillion trees on Earth—more than seven times the number previously estimated—according to a tally by an international team of scientists. The study also finds that human activity is detrimental to tree abundance worldwide. Around 15 billion … Continue reading

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Carbon release from ocean helped end Ice Age

Scientists have found a release of carbon dioxide stored deep in the ocean helped warm the planet and bring it out of the last ice age. The findings will help scientists understand how the ocean affects the carbon cycle and … Continue reading

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Ocean acidification caused by humans detailed via new global maps

A team of scientists has published the most comprehensive picture yet of how acidity levels vary across the world’s oceans, providing a benchmark for years to come as enormous amounts of human-caused carbon emissions continue to wind up at sea. … Continue reading

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Massive tectonic event a half-billion years ago may have triggered explosive growth of animal species

AUSTIN, Texas— A new analysis of geologic history may help solve the riddle of the “Cambrian explosion,” the rapid diversification of animal life in the fossil record 530 million years ago that has puzzled scientists since the time of Charles … Continue reading

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California blue whales rebound from whaling, first of their kin to do so

The number of California blue whales has rebounded to near historical levels, according to new research by the University of Washington, and while the number of blue whales struck by ships is likely above allowable U.S. limits, such strikes do … Continue reading

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Global Climate Trend Since Nov. 16, 1978: +0.14 C Per Decade

Global Temperature Report: August 2014 Global climate trend since Nov. 16, 1978: +0.14 C per decade August temperatures (preliminary) Global composite temp.: +0.20 C (about 0.36 degrees Fahrenheit) above 30-year average for August. Northern Hemisphere: +0.24 C (about 0.43 degrees … Continue reading

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US government: 950,000 years ago, the deep ocean currents that move heat around the globe stalled or even stopped

For decades, climate scientists have tried to explain why ice-age cycles became longer and more intense about 900,000 years ago, switching from 41,000-year cycles to 100,000-year cycles. In a new study in the leading journal Science, researchers found that the … Continue reading

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Major West Antarctic glacier melting from geothermal sources

AUSTIN, Texas — Thwaites Glacier, the large, rapidly changing outlet of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is not only being eroded by the ocean, it’s being melted from below by geothermal heat, researchers at the Institute for Geophysics at The … Continue reading

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Antarctic Ice Sheet unstable at end of last ice age

CORVALLIS, Ore. – A new study has found that the Antarctic Ice Sheet began melting about 5,000 years earlier than previously thought coming out of the last ice age – and that shrinkage of the vast ice sheet accelerated during … Continue reading

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The little-studied man-made gases that have big warming potential

The total warming impact of 25 major synthetic greenhouse gases has been examined by an international team, led by researchers from the University of Bristol. The study estimates that, without additional limits on synthetic greenhouse gas use, the resulting increase … Continue reading

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A lot of people mix up the ozone hole and global warming

WASHINGTON, DC—A lot of people mix up the ozone hole and global warming, believing the hole is a major cause of the world’s increasing average temperature. Scientists, on the other hand, have long attributed a small cooling effect to the … Continue reading

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Excess weight linked to 8 more cancer types

Newswise — There’s yet another reason to maintain a healthy weight as we age. An international team of researchers has identified eight additional types of cancer linked to excess weight and obesity: stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, ovary, meningioma (a type of brain tumor), thyroid cancer and the blood cancer multiple myeloma.

Limiting weight gain over the decades could help to reduce the risk of these cancers, the data suggest.

The findings, published Aug. 25 in The New England Journal of Medicine, are based on a review of more than 1,000 studies of excess weight and cancer risk analyzed by the World Health Organization’s International Agency for Cancer on Research (IARC), based in France.

“The burden of cancer due to being overweight or obese is more extensive than what has been assumed,” said cancer prevention expert Graham Colditz, MD, DrPH, at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, who chaired the IARC Working Group. “Many of the newly identified cancers linked to excess weight haven’t been on people’s radar screens as having a weight component.”

The findings could have a significant bearing on the global population. Worldwide, an estimated 640 million adults and 110 million children are obese, including one-third of adults and children in the United States.

In 2002, the same group of cancer researchers found sufficient evidence linking excess weight to higher risks of cancers of the colon, esophagus, kidney, breast and uterus.

“Lifestyle factors such as eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight and exercising, in addition to not smoking, can have a significant impact on reducing cancer risk,” Colditz said. “Public health efforts to combat cancer should focus on these things that people have some control over.”

“But losing weight is hard for many people,” he added. “Rather than getting discouraged and giving up, those struggling to take off weight could instead focus on avoiding more weight gain.”

For most of the cancers on the newly expanded list, the researchers noted a positive dose-response relationship: the higher the body-mass index, or BMI, the greater the cancer risk.

The cancer risks associated with excess weight were similar for men and women and, when data were available, were consistent across geographic regions – North America, Europe, Asia and the Middle East.

There are many reasons why being overweight or obese can increase cancer risk, the researchers noted. Excess fat leads to an overproduction of estrogen, testosterone and insulin, and promotes inflammation, all of which can drive cancer growth.

“Significant numbers of the U.S. and the world’s population are overweight,” Colditz said. “This is another wake-up call. It’s time to take our health and our diets seriously.”

Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, Grosse Y, Bianchini F, Straif K. Body fatness and cancer — Viewpoint of the IARC working group. The New England Journal of Medicine. Aug. 25, 2016.

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Aspirin reverses obesity cancer risk

Research has shown that a regular dose of aspirin reduces the long-term risk of cancer in those who are overweight in an international study of people with a family history of the disease. The study, conducted by researchers at Newcastle … Continue reading

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Risk of Some Cancers Rises With Duration of Obesity

Duration and extent of overweight and obesity in adulthood have been linked with a significantly increased risk of all obesity-related cancers, according to an analysis of Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) data. A longer overweight duration significantly increased the risk of … Continue reading

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Obesity on the rise in adults with a history of cancer

August 9, 2016 — A study at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health showed that obesity was more prevalent in patients with a history of cancer than in the general population, and survivors of colorectal and breast cancers were … Continue reading

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How obesity contributes to, blocks treatment of pancreatic cancer

Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators have discovered the mechanism by which obesity increases inflammation and desmoplasia – an accumulation of connective tissue – in the most common form of pancreatic cancer. In their report published online in Cancer Discovery the … Continue reading

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Alcohol, Processed Meat, Obesity and Stomach Cancer Risk Linked

Newswise — Fred Hutchinson cancer epidemiologist and prevention expert Dr. Anne McTiernan worked on a major scientific report that for the first time has found that drinking alcohol, eating processed meat and being overweight increase the risk of developing stomach … Continue reading

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Study suggests link between obesity and kidney cancer

Receptors for leptin, a protein hormone, may be associated with tumor recurrence in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), providing further understanding about molecular links between obesity and RCC tumor formation and prognosis, according to a study at The University … Continue reading

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New proteins discovered that link obesity-driven diabetes to cancer

(Boston)–For the first time, researchers have determined how bromodomain (BRD) proteins work in type 2 diabetes, which may lead to a better understanding of the link between adult-onset diabetes and certain cancers. The findings, which appear in PLOS ONE, show … Continue reading

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How obesity promotes pancreatic and breast cancer

Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators may have uncovered a novel mechanism behind the ability of obesity to promote cancer progression.  In their report published online in the journal Clinical Cancer Research, the research team describes finding an association between obesity … Continue reading

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Obesity, colorectal cancer linked

Newswise — (PHILADELPHIA) — Obesity has long been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer, but the link has never been understood. Now, a research team led by investigators at Thomas Jefferson University has revealed the biological connection, and in … Continue reading

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Colorectal cancer survival rates decline with higher obesity levels prior to diagnosis

Br J Cancer. 2015 Dec 17. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2015.424. [Epub ahead of print] Severe obesity prior to diagnosis limits survival in colorectal cancer patients evaluated at a large cancer centre. Daniel CR1, Shu X1, Ye Y1, Gu J1, Raju GS2, Kopetz … Continue reading

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In ovarian cancer patients, obesity contributes to metastasis

Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease, one that’s hard to detect until it has progressed significantly. More than 75 percent of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer have metastasis at the time of diagnosis, resulting in a low five-year survival rate … Continue reading

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Obesity increases risk of developing cancer: Medical University of Vienna

Cancer is more likely to develop in people who are very overweight (obese), because surplus body fat interferes with various hormone cycles and with glucose and fat metabolism. On the occasion of European Obesity Day this coming Saturday (16 May), … Continue reading

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Cancer prevention guidelines may lower risk of obesity-linked cancers

Low alcohol consumption and a plant-based diet, both healthy habits aligning with current cancer prevention guidelines, are associated with reducing the risk of obesity-related cancers, a New York University study shows. The findings appear in the journal Cancer Causes & … Continue reading

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The cancer-obesity link: new data

Excess body weight causes around 481 000 new cancer cases a year in adults–or 3.6% of cancers worldwide–new estimates published in The Lancet Oncology suggest. The burden is far higher in more developed countries, with almost two-thirds (64%) of these … Continue reading

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Obesity a Liability in Cancer Immunotherapy

Newswise — Packing on the pounds may lead to dangerous inflammation in response to anti-cancer treatment, according to a study by William Murphy and colleages at UC Davis. The study, published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine, shows that overweight … Continue reading

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How obesity leads to type 2 diabetes, cancer: new info

New findings about the biological links between obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes may also shed light on the connection between obesity and cancer, says a scientist at The University of Texas at Dallas. In a study published online … Continue reading

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Obesity primes the colon for cancer, according to NIH study

Obesity, rather than diet, causes changes in the colon that may lead to colorectal cancer, according to a study in mice by the National Institutes of Health. The finding bolsters the recommendation that calorie control and frequent exercise are not … Continue reading

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Obesity and diabetes have adverse effects on cancer outcomes

Both obesity and diabetes have adverse effects on outcomes in breast cancer patients who receive chemotherapy as primary treatment before surgery (neoadjuvant chemotherapy), according to research to be presented at the 9th European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC-9) tomorrow (Friday). Although … Continue reading

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The cancer-obesity connection: what do we know and what can we do?

Elio Riboli Correspondence: Elio Riboli e.riboli@imperial.ac.uk Author Affiliations The School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, UK BMC Biology 2014, 12:9  doi:10.1186/1741-7007-12-9 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be … Continue reading

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Basal-like breast cancer major risk factor? Obesity

Women who are obese face an increased risk of developing an aggressive sub-type of breast cancer known as ‘basal-like’, according to research conducted at the University of North Carolina. In a study published online by the journal Breast Cancer Research … Continue reading

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Obesity tops cancer in perception as worst U.S. health problem

CINCINNATI, Sept. 23, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — Americans are more concerned about obesity than any other health problem and 83% think it is the most important health issue in America, according to findings from a survey released today by pollster Repass & … Continue reading

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Pancreatic cancer risk goes up with obesity at any age

Lifetime adiposity and risk of pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort1,2,3 First published August 28, 2013, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.058123 Am J Clin Nutr October 2013 ajcn.058123 Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Catherine Schairer, Steve Moore, Albert Hollenbeck, and Debra … Continue reading

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Obesity is as serious a health condition as cancer, heart disease

SILVER SPRING, Md., May 9, 2013 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ — With two out of three adults in the United States considered obese or overweight[i] obesity scientists and clinicians are asking that obesity be treated as a serious health condition, such as heart … Continue reading

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Obesity surgery ups colon cancer risk

Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer After Obesity Surgery Derogar, Maryam MD; Hull, Mark A. MD, PhD; Kant, Prashant MD; Östlund, Magdalena MD; Lu, Yunxia MD, PhD; Lagergren, Jesper MD, PhD Annals of Surgery, POST AUTHOR CORRECTIONS, 6 March 2013 doi: … Continue reading

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Obesity ups colorectal cancer, polyps risk

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Hay fever from ragweed pollen could double due to climate change

Climate change could cause new hay fever misery for millions of people across Europe – according to a new report from the University of East Anglia in collaboration with several European institutes.

Research published today reveals that the number of people suffering hay fever from ragweed pollen could double in just 35 years. Researchers believe climate change will be responsible for two thirds of this increase.

Higher ragweed pollen concentrations and a longer ragweed pollen season may also increase the severity of ragweed symptoms, with populations across most of Europe likely to be affected in the next 35 years.

Hay fever is a common allergic condition that is estimated to already affect 40 per cent of Europeans at some point in their life.

It is caused by an allergy to pollen — including tree pollen (released during spring), grass pollen (released during the end of spring and beginning of summer) or weed pollen (especially released late autumn).

Lead researcher Dr Iain Lake from UEA’s School of Environmental Sciences, said: “Pollen allergy is a major public health problem globally but it has not been known what sort of an impact climate change will have.

“This is the first study to quantify what the consequences of climate change on pollen allergy may be.”

The research team investigated the potential impacts of climate change on ragweed plant distribution, plant productivity, pollen production and dispersal, and the resulting allergy impacts across Europe.

Ragweed is a highly invasive plant and its pollen is a common allergen. A single plant may produce around a billion grains of pollen per season, which is carried on the wind and its potential to cause allergies is high.

The team created maps of estimated ragweed pollen counts over the pollen season and combined them with data on where people live and levels of allergy in the population.

They found that the number of people affected by Ragweed pollen is likely to more than double in Europe from 33 to 77 million people — by as soon as 2050.

Dr Lake said: “Our research shows that ragweed pollen allergy will become a common health problem across Europe, expanding into areas where it is currently uncommon.

“The problem is likely to increase in countries with an existing ragweed problem, such as in Hungary and the Balkans. But the greatest proportional increases will happen in countries including Germany, Poland and France.

“Higher ragweed pollen concentrations and a longer ragweed pollen season may also increase the severity of symptoms,” he added. “France and the north west of Italy are likely to see airborne ragweed pollen earlier in the season from mid-July to mid-August. Our projections suggest that ragweed pollen will persist from mid-September to mid-October across most of Europe.

“The annual economic burden of allergic disease in the EU is already estimated at between €55 billion and €151 billion so increases on this level will bring a hefty price tag.

“Management of this invasive plant could reduce the amount of people affected to about 52 million, while a scenario which sees very rapid plant invasion would increase the amount of people affected to around 107 million. The control of ragweed is important for public health and as an adaptation strategy against the impacts of climate change.

“It is also important to add that climate change consequences will not be restricted to ragweed — and a range of other pollen-producing species are likely to be affected. Our methods provide a framework for other studies investigating the impacts of climate change on pollen allergy for other species.”

###

‘Climate change and future pollen allergy in Europe’ is published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives on Aug. 25, 2016.

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Also see

New short ragweed pollen allergy drug gets FDA OK

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Ragwitek, the first allergen extract administered under the tongue (sublingually) to treat short ragweed pollen induced allergic rhinitis (hay fever), with or without conjunctivitis (eye inflammation), in adults 18 years through 65 … Continue reading

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Kids’ hay fever risk depends on what state they live in

BALTIMORE, MD. (November 8, 2013) – If you think your child’s stuffy nose is due to an autumn cold, you might want to consider allergies, especially if you live in the southern region of the United States. A study being … Continue reading

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Oral allergy syndrome and high blood pressure medications can create lethal cocktail

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Allergy meds could affect driving

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Spring allergy season off to early start: what you can do

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Allergy relief for kids: advice from the FDA

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The Lancet Global Health: Arab uprising has had long-term effect on health, lowering life expectancy in several countries

  • War in Syria had erased 6 years off male life expectancy by 2013
  • Syria falling behind countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in reducing child mortality
  • Conflicts threaten to jeopardise health gains over past two decades and will have impact on the region and worldwide for many years

The Arab uprising in 2010 and subsequent wars in the eastern Mediterranean region have had serious detrimental effects on the health and life expectancy of the people living in many of the 22 countries in the region [1], according to a major new analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), published in The Lancet Global Health journal. In particular, the downward turns in life expectancy experienced by Syria, Yemen, Libya, Tunisia, and Egypt since 2010 are threatening to jeopardise health gains over the past two decades, warn the authors.

Between 2010 and 2013, Yemen, Tunisia, and Egypt lost about 3 months of life expectancy, whilst the war in Syria has erased 6 years off average life expectancy, with men expected to live to around 75 years in 2010, falling to about 69 years in 2013. For Syrian women, average life expectancy dropped from about 80 to 75 years over the same period (figures 2 & 3).

“Life expectancy decline is traditionally regarded as a sign that the health and social systems are failing. The fact that this is happening in several countries indicates there is an immediate need to invest in health care systems”, says Ali Mokdad, Professor of Global Health at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington, Seattle, USA, who led the research.[2]

“Recent conflicts have shattered the basic infrastructure in a number of countries. As a result, millions of people are facing dire water shortages and poor sanitation that will lead to disease outbreaks, which must be controlled.”[2]

The study reveals that many of the health gains achieved by countries in the region are at risk of slowing down. For example, there is now evidence that infant mortality rates are rising in some countries. Most strikingly in Syria where infant deaths fell at an average of 6.0% a year in the decade before 2010 in sharp contrast to the rise of 9.1% a year between 2010 and 2013.

The authors warn that the study represents a worrying picture of worsening health conditions across many eastern Mediterranean countries that are likely to have escalated since 2013 when the wars in Syria and Libya intensified and conflicts and unrest continued or broke out in Yemen, Lebanon, Afghanistan, Iraq, and Somalia.

“This region has historically seen improvements in life expectancy and other health indicators, even under times of stress. But the Arab uprising has evolved into complex wars that have killed hundreds of thousands of people and displaced millions”, explains Professor Mokdad. “Along with population growth and ageing, these ongoing conflicts have dramatically increased the burden of chronic diseases and injuries and many health workers have fled for safer shores. These issues will result in deteriorating health conditions in many countries for many years and will put a strain on already scarce resources.” [2]

Using data from GBD 2013, Professor Mokdad and colleagues at IHME analysed patterns of ill health and death due to 306 diseases and injuries and calculated the contribution of 79 risk factors in the eastern Mediterranean region over 23 years (1990 to 2013).

Other key findings include:

  • People in the eastern Mediterranean region are living longer on the whole, yet they face increasing threats from chronic diseases, with the leading causes of premature death and health loss shifting from communicable (e.g. diarrheal diseases and tuberculosis) to non-communicable diseases (e.g. heart disease, diabetes, and stroke) (table 3).
  • For example, deaths from diabetes rose from 12 to 19 per 100000 between 1990 and 2013. The authors warn that these trends will lead to additional strain on finances and human resources in a region where they are already scarce.
  • Across the region, the growth of non-communicable disease risk factors such as high blood pressure (up 83% since 1990, responsible for 7.7% of disease burden in 2013) and obesity and overweight (up 28%; 7.5%) should be a priority for the region and will require large-scale prevention measures, say the authors (table 2).
  • Heart disease was the number one cause of death in 2013 (up 17%; responsible for around 9.5% of all deaths in 1990 and 15% in 2013) overtaking diarrhoeal diseases (9.8% of all deaths in 1990 to 3.8% in 2013) and lower respiratory infections (9.7% to 5.8%).
  • Mental and substance abuse disorders (predominantly depression, anxiety, and drug use disorders) and musculoskeletal disorders (ie, low back and neck pain) have increased substantially as a cause of ill health in the region since 1990 [3](see appendix figure 7 page 10). The authors warn that the rise in burden of mental-health problems has not been met with investment in prevention by most countries in the region (except perhaps Lebanon and Qatar), and has been largely overlooked by international agencies and national ministries of health.
  • In low-income countries, nutritional deficiencies (mainly iron-deficiency anaemia) still cause a disproportionate amount of disability and health burden, ranking as a leading cause of ill health in Yemen and Afghanistan in 2013.
  • Across the region, years of good health lost to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders fell from around 109 million in 1990 to 73 million in 2013 [4] (table 3). However, child health remains a particular concern, with children aged under 5 contributing to a third (33%) of all health loss in 2013.
  • In 2013, lower respiratory infections were ranked among the top-two contributors to health loss in males and females (table 1). Diarrhoeal disease remains in the top-10 leading causes of health loss but has fallen considerably in the rankings since 1990, dropping from 1st place (11.5% of all health loss) to 4th place in 2013 (4.8%). The authors warn that the spread of infectious diseases like Middle East Respiratory Syndrome is worrying–especially given the upcoming Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia in early September.
  • Causes of health loss differed by national income level: for low-income countries like Afghanistan and Somalia, lower respiratory infections and diarrheal diseases remain the top contributors; while middle-income countries (eg, Egypt, Iraq, Morocco) lose substantially more health to heart disease; and for the oil-rich high-income countries like Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates, road injuries, drug use, and diabetes cause the most health loss.

Writing in a linked Comment, Dr Riyadh Lafta from Mustansiriya Medical School, Baghdad, Iraq discusses the health burden of conflict, saying that, “War and other forms of armed con?ict cause extensive morbidity (including disabling injuries and adverse effects on mental health) and mortality in military personnel and civilians. Populations suffer health problems during, and after, con?icts because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure, safe food and water, sanitation, and medical care and public health services. Moreover, conflicts lead to internal displacement of large numbers of individuals and families, which increases the burden of diseases and injuries, and, consequently, leads to more violence…Addressing this growing burden requires sincere efforts, realistic plans, adoption of new approaches and skills to continuously evaluate and analyse the situation, proposal and implementation of plans for prevention and control measures, and improvement of health services to dilute the effect of the burden of conflict.”

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Raw scallops, hepatitis A outbreak, Hawaii, west coast US for now

August 24, 2016 

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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local officials are investigating an outbreak of hepatitis A illnesses linked to raw scallops.

Fast Facts

  • The FDA and CDC are supporting the Hawaii Department of Health (DOH) in an investigation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections linked to scallops supplied by Sea Port Products Corp. On August 17, 2016, Hawaii Department of Health reported that 206 people have been confirmed to have become ill with hepatitis A in that state.
  • On August 17, 2016, the FDA, Hawaii DOH, CDC and state partners informed Sea Port Products Corp that epidemiological, laboratory and traceback information indicates their scallops are the likely source of illnesses. On August 18, 2016, Sea Port Products Corp initiated a voluntary recall of three lots of frozen Bay Scallops produced on November 23, 2015 and 24, 2015. The lot numbers are 5885, 5886, and 5887. The products were distributed to California, Hawaii, and Nevada. According to Sea Port Products Corp, the recalled products are not intended for retail sale. The FDA is working with the recalling firm to ensure their recall is effective and that recalled product is removed from the market.
  • Restaurants and other retailers should not sell or serve the recalled Bay Scallops. According to Sea Port Products Corp, the recalled products are not intended for retail sale. Consumers should ask the restaurant or retailer where their scallops came from to make sure they do not eat recalled Bay Scallops from Sea Port Products Corp.

 

What is the Problem and What is Being Done About It?

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are supporting the State of Hawaii in an investigation of hepatitis A illnesses linked to raw scallops.

According to the Hawaii Department of Health (DOH), 206 people have been confirmed to have become ill with hepatitis A. Illnesses started on dates ranging from June 12, 2016 to August 9, 2016. All cases have been in adults and 51 have required hospitalization.

The FDA’s traceback investigation involved working with Hawaii DOH to trace the path of food eaten by those made ill back to a common source. The traceback investigation determined that Sea Port Products Corp imported the scallops that were later supplied to certain Genki Sushi locations in Hawaii, where ill people reported eating.

On August 17, 2016, FDA laboratory analysis of two scallop samples, which were collected on August 11, 2016, were confirmed positive for hepatitis A. These samples were imported by Sea Port Products Corp and were produced on November 23, 2015 and 24, 2015.

The FDA, CDC and state partners immediately informed Sea Port Products Corp that epidemiological, laboratory and traceback information indicates their scallops are the likely source of illnesses. On August 18, 2016, Sea Port Products Corp initiated a voluntary recall of three lots of frozen Bay Scallops produced on November 23, 2015 and 24, 2015. The lot numbers are 5885, 5886, and 5887. The products were distributed to California, Hawaii, and Nevada. According to Sea Port Products Corp, the recalled products are not intended for retail sale. The FDA is working with the recalling firm to ensure their recall is effective and that recalled product is removed from the market.

 

What is Hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis A virus (HAV). It can range in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a severe illness lasting several months. Hepatitis A is usually spread when a person ingests fecal matter — even in microscopic amounts — from contact with objects, food, or drinks contaminated by the feces of an infected person (fecal-oral route).

What are the Symptoms of Hepatitis A?

Illness occurs within 15 to 50 days of exposure and in adults includes fatigue, abdominal pain, jaundice, abnormal liver tests, dark urine and pale stool.

Who is at Risk?

Hepatitis A is a disease that originates in and is spread by people, rather than animals. It can occur  when an infected food handler prepares food without appropriate hand hygiene. However, food (as is suspected in this outbreak) or water contaminated with HAV can cause outbreaks of disease.

In rare cases, particularly in patients with pre-existing severe illness or who are immunocompromised, HAV infection can progress to liver failure and death.  People who have underlying liver conditions or pre-existing severe illness, or who are immunocompromised, should be vaccinated for HAV.

 

What Specific Products were Recalled?

On August 18, 2016, Sea Port Products Corp initiated a voluntary recall of three lots of frozen Bay Scallops produced on November 23, 2015 and 24, 2015. The lot numbers are 5885, 5886, and 5887. The products were distributed to California, Hawaii, and Nevada. According to Sea Port Products Corp, the recalled products are not intended for retail sale.

Image of sea port raw frozen Bay Scallops

What Do Restaurants and Retailers Need To Do?

Retailers and other food service operators should not sell or serve the recalled products. These operations should also:

  • Wash and sanitize display cases and refrigerators where potentially contaminated products were stored.
  • Wash and sanitize cutting boards, surfaces, and utensils used to prepare, serve, or store potentially contaminated products.
  • Wash hands with hot water and soap following the cleaning and sanitation process.
  • Retailers, restaurants, and other food service operators who have processed and packaged any potentially contaminated products need to be concerned about cross contamination of cutting surfaces and utensils through contact with the potentially contaminated products.

 

What Do Consumers Need To Do?

Water, shellfish, and salads are the most frequent foodborne sources of hepatitis A. You can avoid Hepatitis A transmission from seafood by thoroughly cooking it. Hepatitis A can be transmitted from person to person. Consumers should always practice safe food handling and preparation measures.  Wash hands, utensils, and surfaces with hot, soapy water before and after handling food. Consumers should thoroughly wash their hands after using the bathroom and changing diapers to help protect themselves from hepatitis A, as well as other foodborne diseases.

Consumers should ask the restaurant or retailer where their scallops came from to make sure they do not eat recalled Bay Scallops from Sea Port Products Corp.

The FDA has provided information on selecting and serving fresh and frozen seafood safely.  Some people are at greater risk for foodborne illness and should not eat raw or partially cooked fish or shellfish. These susceptible groups include:

  • Pregnant women
  • Young children
  • Older adults
  • Persons whose immune systems are compromised
  • Persons who have decreased stomach acidity

If you are unsure of your risk, ask your healthcare provider.

Who Should be Contacted?

Contact your healthcare provider if you think you may have become ill from eating raw scallops.

The FDA encourages consumers with questions about food safety to call 1-888-SAFEFOOD Monday through Friday between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. Eastern time, or to consult http://www.fda.gov.

Posted in Hepatology: Hepatitis A | Leave a comment

Selecting the right house plant could improve indoor air (animation)

PHILADELPHIA, Aug. 24, 2016 — Indoor air pollution is an important environmental threat to human health, leading to symptoms of “sick building syndrome.” But researchers report that surrounding oneself with certain house plants could combat the potentially harmful effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a main category of these pollutants. Interestingly, they found that certain plants are better at removing particular harmful compounds from the air, suggesting that, with the right plant, indoor air could become cleaner and safer.

The researchers are presenting their work today at the 252nd National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS). ACS, the world’s largest scientific society, is holding the meeting here through Thursday. It features more than 9,000 presentations on a wide range of science topics. A brand-new animation on the research is available at http://bit.ly/ACSindoorairpollution.

“Buildings, whether new or old, can have high levels of VOCs in them, sometimes so high that you can smell them,” says Vadoud Niri, Ph.D., leader of the study.

VOCs are compounds like acetone, benzene and formaldehyde that are emitted as gases and can cause short- and long-term health effects when inhaled. They can come from paints, furniture, copiers and printers, cleaning supplies and even dry-cleaned clothes.

“Inhaling large amounts of VOCs can lead some people to develop sick building syndrome, which reduces productivity and can even cause dizziness, asthma or allergies,” Niri says. “We must do something about VOCs in indoor air.”

The most common solution is to install ventilation systems that cycle in air from outside. There are also methods that can remove these compounds, using adsorption, condensation and chemical reactions.

However, Niri is studying a cheap, simple tool to remove VOCs: house plants. Using plants to remove chemicals from indoor air is called biofiltration or phytoremediation. In addition to carbon dioxide, plants can take up gases such as benzene, toluene and other VOCs. NASA began studying this option in 1984 and found that plants could absorb these airborne compounds via their leaves and roots.

Since then, other studies have looked at how plants phytoremediate specific compounds, such as the carcinogen formaldehyde, in a closed space. Most of these studies focused on the removal of single VOCs by individual plants from the ambient air. However, Niri wanted to compare the efficiency and the rate of simultaneous removal of several VOCs by various plants.

To test this, Niri, who is at the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego), and his team built a sealed chamber containing specific concentrations of several VOCs. They then monitored the VOC concentrations over several hours with and without a different type of plant in the chamber. For each plant type, they noted which VOCs the plants took up, how quickly they removed these VOCs from the air, and how much of the VOCs were ultimately removed by the end of the experiment.

The researchers tested five common house plants and eight common VOCs, and they found that certain plants were better at absorbing specific compounds. For example, all five plants could remove acetone — the pungent chemical that is abundant at nail salons — from the air, but the dracaena plant took up the most, around 94 percent of the chemical.

“Based on our results, we can recommend what plants are good for certain types of VOCs and for specific locations,” Niri says. “To illustrate, the bromeliad plant was very good at removing six out of eight studied VOCs — it was able to take up more than 80 percent of each of those compounds — over the twelve-hour sampling period. So it could be a good plant to have sitting around in the household or workplace.”

Niri says the next step in the research is to test these plants’ abilities in a real room, not just a sealed chamber. He would eventually like to put plants in a nail salon over the course of several months to see whether they can reduce the levels of acetone that workers are exposed to.

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Gut Bacteria Could Tip Balance in Developing Celiac Disease or Staying Healthy

Newswise — Hamilton, ON (August 24, 2016) — About 40 per cent of the population have a genetic disposition to celiac disease, but only about one per cent develop the autoimmune condition when exposed to gluten, and this could be promoted by the type of bacteria present in the gut.

Researchers at McMaster University have found that gluten, a common protein in the Western diet which is not well digested by the gut enzymes, could be metabolized by bacteria.

The scientists of the Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute at McMaster University discovered that mice that harboured in their gut the opportunistic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Psa) isolated from celiac patients, metabolized gluten differently than mice treated with Lactobacillus, often used as probiotics.

More interestingly, when the chemistry of gluten metabolism by Psa and Lactobacillus were analysed, the researchers found that Psa produced gluten sequences that stimulated inflammation in celiac patients, while Lactobacillus was able to detoxify gluten.

The paper, published online in the international medical journal Gastroenterology, was funded by a grant from the Canadian Institutes for Health Research and involved researchers in Canada, Australia and Germany.

“So the type of bacteria that we have in our gut contributes to the digestion of gluten, and the way this digestion is performed could increase or decrease the chances of developing celiac disease in a person with genetic risk,” said Dr. Elena Verdu, senior author of the study and an associate professor of medicine for the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine at McMaster.

“Celiac disease is caused by gluten in genetically predisposed people, but bacteria in our gut could tip the balance in some people between developing the disease or staying healthy.”

Celiac disease is the inflammatory reaction triggered by eating gluten, which is a group of proteins found in wheat, rye and barley, and which leads to destruction of the gut lining. The number of people who suffer from celiac disease has been steadily increasing in the past decade, and some researchers feel it may be blamed on environmental factors.

“We may be closer to understanding the way gut bacteria and opportunistic pathogens such as Psa could affect celiac disease risk. This will help us develop strategies to prevent these disorders, but more research is needed,” said Verdu.

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Diets avoiding dry-cooked foods can protect against diabetes, say Mount Sinai researchers

Simple changes in how we cook could go a long way towards preventing diabetes, say researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. A new randomized controlled trial, published online July 29 in the journal Diabetologia, found that obese individuals with signs of insulin resistance showed improvement simply by avoiding the intake of advanced glycation endproducts, or AGEs, a byproduct of cooking found most commonly in dry heat-cooked or heat-processed foods.

The study is a follow-up to a 2014 article published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In the earlier study, the researchers, led by Helen Vlassara, MD, Professor Emeritus of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine and Medicine at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, confirmed that high levels of AGEs in the body can cause pre-diabetes characterized by increasing insulin resistance, as well as brain changes similar to Alzheimer’s disease. This study focused more on diabetes risk.

“While food AGEs are prevalent, particularly in Western diets, our study showed that avoiding foods high in AGEs could actually reverse the damage that had been done,” said Dr. Vlassara. “This can provide us with new clinical approaches to pre-diabetes, potentially helping protect certain at-risk individuals from developing full diabetes and its devastating consequences.”

The researchers divided the study participants into two groups of obese individuals – one eating a regular diet, which is typically high in AGEs (Reg-AGE), and one with a diet low in AGEs (L-AGE). Members of the L-AGE group were instructed to avoid grilling, frying, or baking their food, in favor of poaching, stewing, or steaming.

At the beginning and end of the trial, blood and urine samples were analyzed to determine insulin resistance. The two groups showed similar levels of insulin resistance at the beginning; at the end, the L-AGE group showed significantly improved insulin resistance, as well as slightly decreased body weight and lowered levels of AGEs in the body. The Reg-AGE group had higher levels of AGEs and more markers of insulin resistance than during the baseline measurements.

“Elevated serum AGEs in individuals can be used as a marker to diagnose and treat ‘at risk’ obesity in patients,” said Jaime Uribarri, MD, Professor of Medicine (Nephrology) at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, another investigator in the study. “Even without losing a significant amount of weight, a reduced AGE diet can help prevent diabetes in these patients.”

The researchers also found a positive effect on six key genes associated with the regulation of oxidant stress and inflammation. Four of these had been found to be suppressed at the baseline blood and urine analysis, but were markedly increased at the end, including anti-inflammatory SIRT1 and adiponectin, as well as the receptor for the removal of AGEs, AGER1, and glyoxalase-1.

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This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health (grant DK091231) and by the National Institute of Research Resources (grant MOI-RR-00071).

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How do antidepressants trigger fear and anxiety?

CHAPEL HILL, NC – More than 100 million people worldwide take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as Prozac and Zoloft, to treat depression, anxiety and related conditions, but these drugs have a common and mysterious side effect: they can worsen anxiety in the first few weeks of use, which leads many patients to stop treatment. Scientists at the University of North Carolina (UNC) School of Medicine have mapped out a serotonin-driven anxiety circuit that may explain this side effect and lead to treatments to eliminate it.

“The hope is that we’ll be able to identify a drug that inhibits this circuit and that people could take for just the first few weeks of SSRI use to get over that hump,” said senior investigator Thomas L. Kash, PhD, the John Andrews Distinguished Professor of Alcohol Studies in the UNC School of Medicine’s department of pharmacology. “More generally, this finding gives us a deeper understanding of the brain networks that drive anxiety and fear behavior in mammals.”

The new study, published in Nature, counters the popular view of serotonin as a neurotransmitter that promotes only good feelings. SSRIs, which are taken by about one in 10 people in the United States and about one in four women in their 40s and 50s, are thought to improve mood by boosting serotonin activity in the brain. There are brain circuits through which serotonin does seem to improve mood, and some studies have linked depression to abnormally low levels of serotonin. But the short-lived promotion of anxiety in many patients on SSRIs – even suicidal thinking, particularly in younger people – has long hinted that serotonin can have negative effects on mood, depending on the precise brain circuit where it acts.

In the Nature study, for which co-authors were UNC postdoctoral researcher Catherine A. Marcinkiewcz, PhD, and UNC graduate student Christopher M. Mazzone, the researchers used an array of sophisticated methods, including advanced optogenetic and chemogenetic tools, to trace a serotonin-activated pathway in the brains of mice, a pathway that drives anxious behavior.

The team first demonstrated that a mild shock to the paws of mice – a standard method for evoking fear and anxiety behaviors – activates serotonin-producing neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a brainstem region known to be involved in mood and depression. These DRN serotonin neurons project to a brain region that is called the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and has been shown in previous studies to have a role in serotonin’s negative mood effects in rodents. Artificially increasing the activity of the DRN-to-BNST neurons enhanced anxiety-like behaviors in the mice.

UNC scientists found that the serotonin output from the DRN neurons activates their target neurons in the BNST through a specific subset of serotonin receptors, known as 2C receptors. These serotonin-activated BNST neurons then tamp down the activity of another family of BNST neurons, which, in turn, project to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) – key nodes in the brain’s reward, motivation and alertness networks.

The pathways from BNST to VTA and LH have been reported in previous studies to improve mood and relieve anxiety. Researchers confirmed that artificially driving the activity of these pathways has the effect of reducing foot-shock-induced fear and anxiety behaviors in the mice. By contrast, the silencing of these pathways by serotonin-activated BNST neurons effectively allows the anxiety level to rise.

Examining the impact of SSRIs, the scientists exposed 2C-receptor BNST neurons to fluoxetine (Prozac), which like other SSRIs gives a boost to serotonin levels wherever the neurotransmitter is at work. This turned out to increase the 2C-receptor neurons’ inhibitory effect on the neighboring VTA- and LH-projecting neurons, worsening fear and anxiety behavior in mice.

How can this effect be blocked? Kash and his team observed that the anxiety-mediating BNST neurons expressed the stress-signaling molecule corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). When they added a compound to block CRF activity, they witnessed that fearful behaviors – which had been triggered by fluoxetine – were greatly reduced.

One of the next steps is to confirm that this serotonin-sensitive DRN-to-BNST anxiety circuit exists in humans as well. “It’s logical that it would,” Kash said, “since we know SSRIs can induce anxiety in people, and the pathways in these brain regions tend to be very similar in mice and humans.”

Another next step will be to test drugs – ideally FDA-approved for various conditions – for their ability to alter this anxiety circuit and thereby block SSRIs’ anxiety-inducing effect. In principle, a CRF-blocker might work. For years, pharmaceutical companies have been trying to develop CRF blockers to treat depression, anxiety and addiction. In practice, Kash said, CRF blockers haven’t yet had success in clinical trials, so an FDA-approved one is probably still years away at least.

“Other researchers are working to develop better CRF-inhibiting compounds, so that’s one potential direction to take, but there are others,” Kash said. “We’re now looking at the various proteins expressed by these BNST neurons, and we’re hoping to identify a receptor that is already targeted by established drugs. One of them might be useful for people as they start taking SSRIs.”

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Other authors of the study were Giuseppe D’Agostino, PhD, research fellow at the University of Aberdeen; Lindsay R. Halladay, PhD, research fellow at the National Institutes of Health; J. Andrew Hardaway, postdoctoral fellow in the Kash Lab; Jeffrey F. DiBerto, research technician in the Kash Lab; Todd E. Thiele, PhD, professor of psychology at UNC; Montserrat Navarro, PhD, associate research professor of psychology and neuroscience at UNC; Nathan Burnham, graduate student in the Thiele Lab; Lora K. Heisler, PhD, chair of human nutrition at the University of Aberdeen; Claudia Cristiano, PhD, research fellow in the Heisler Lab; Cayce E. Dorrier, undergraduate research assistant in the Kash Lab; Gregory J. Tipton, research specialist at the UNC Center for Alcohol Studies; Charu Ramakrishnan, lab manager for Deisseroth Lab; Tamas Kozicz, MD, PhD, associate professor of anatomy at Tulane University; Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD, professor of bioengineering, and psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University; Zoe A. McElligott, PhD, assistant professor of psychiatry at UNC; and Andrew Holmes, PhD, senior investigator at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

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